The first attempt to translate ICT terms from English to Zulu

 

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Thanks goes to DBSA, Sentech ans special thanks to the late former Minister of Communications,
Dr Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri
 

It is recognised that some terms have different definitions and meanings in various professional fields or specialities and this glossary is a contribution to the discussion on the standardisation of terms in Information and Communications Technology.

 

A
 
acceptance testing: Making   user-required tests before the system is turned over to the customer.  acceptance testing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlola   okwamukelekile. Ukwenziwa kwezivivinyo ezidingekayo ngaphambi kokuthi izinhlelo   zidluliselwe kubathengi. 
access charge:   Term used in the United States for the fee imposed by local exchange carriers   (LECs) on inter-exchange carriers and on end-users to defray that portion of   the costs of the LECs facilities that are associated with or otherwise   assigned to the provision of inter-exchange services.  access charge:   Lokhu kuchaza inkokhelo   yokwamukeleka. Yitemu elisetshenziswa eMelika lenhlawulo enqunywa yilabo   abashintshisanayo beshintshisana ngaphakathi kwezokuthutha kanye nalabo   abasebenza ekugcineni ukuze kukhokhwe ingxenye yezindleko zamalungelo e   (LECs) ezisuke zihlanganiswe kumbe zinqunyelwe ukuba zibhekele izidingo   zokushintshisana okungaphakathi. 
access:   To communicate with an information system (card catalogue, computer, etc.) in   order to use or store information or data in it. Access may be multiple,   sequential or random.  access:   Lokhu kuchaza ilungelo lokusebenzisa   into ethile. Ukuxhumana nohlelo olunolwazi (ikhathalogi yamakhadi,   yikhompuyutha, nokunye) ukuze kusetshenziswe noma kugcinwe ulwazi noma lokho   okugcinwe kuyo ikhompuyutha. 
accounting   MIS: An accounting Management Information   system feature that performs key financial activities, including payroll,   general ledger, and accounts payable and receivable.  accounting MIS:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwesifundo   sokuphathwa kwezimali ebhizinisini elithile. Uhlelo lokuphathwa kolwazi   lokubalwa kwezimali ezibhekene nezidingo zezimali ezibalulekile,   njengenkokhelo yamaholo, ibhuku elibhekene nokusetshenziswa kwezimali, kanye   nezimali ezikhokhiwe nezizuziwe. 
accounting   rate: A unit of currency negotiated by   international carriers as the amount of compensation to cover the cost of   completing an international call. This amount includes all satellite or   submarine cable transmission costs and the use of domestic tail circuits used   to link an international gateway with the call originator and recipient.   Carriers typically divide the accounting rate in half when settling   accounts.  accounting   rate: Lokhu kuchaza isilinganiso sohlelo lokuphathwa kwezimali. Ingxenye   yohlobo lwemali okuboniswane ngalo nabomnyango wezokuthutha kazwelonke   njengenkokhelo eqondene nezindleko zokuqedela ukuxhumana ngocingo ezweni   lonke. Lezizindleko zihlanganisa uhlobo olusha lokuxhumana okuthiwa i (satellite)   kumbe izinhlelo ezithuthukisiwe zezingcingo ezihamba ngaphansi kwamanzi   zihambisa umyalezo zibuye zisebenzise izindlela zangaphakathi ukuze baxhumane   nechweba likazwelonke kanye nalowo okuqhamuka kuye umyalezo kanye nalowo   owamukela umyalezo. Abezokuthutha basehlukanisa phakathi isilinganiso sohlelo   lokuphathwa kwezimali lapho sebekhokha izikweletu. 
accounts   payable application: An application   that monitors and controls the outflow of funds to an organisation’s   suppliers.  accounts   payable application: Lokhu kuchaza   incwadi yesicelo ephathelene nokukhokhwa kwezikweletu. Incwadi yesicelo eyengamele ukuphuma kwezimali eziya enhlanganweni   yabathumela izimpahla. 
accounts   receivable aging report: A report from the   accounts receivable application that sorts all outstanding debts or bills by   date.  accounts receivable aging   report: Lokhu kuchaza izikweletu ezitholakala ngemibiko emidala. Umbiko ovela   lapho kutholakala khona isicelo sencwadi yezikweletu exazulula zonke   izikweletu ezingakakhokhwa noma izikweletu zangaleso sikhathi. 
ad   valorem tariff:   A tariff calculated as a percentage of the value of foreign goods clearing   customs.  ad valorem tariff:   Lokhu kuchaza ukukhokhiswa kwempahla uhlelo oluthile lwentela. Intela ebalwa   ngamaphesenti ekhokhiswa yilabo abakhokhisa intela kuye ngokuthi impahla leyo   evela ngaphandle ingakanani. 
add-ins:   Functions beyond those of a basic spreadsheet, such as project monitoring or   printing a spreadsheet sideways. These functions are contained in spreadsheet   programmes.  add-ins:   Lokhu kuchaza imibhalo yezinhlelo   ezahlukene eziphathelene nezezimali. Isebenza ukwedlula lokho okuyisisekelo   sohlelo lokubhala ngekhompuyutha imininingwane ephathelene nezinombolo njengo   kubheka amaprojekthi noma ukugaywa kwama spreadsheet macala onke. Lemisebenzi   iqukethwe ezinhlelweni zokubhala iminingwane ephathelene nezinombolo   ngamakhompuyutha. 
advance   publication: The process by which nations inform   other nations of future satellite orbital arc requirements through submission   of information about the satellite and the desired orbital location. The   Radio Regulations Board, formerly known as the International Frequency   Registration Board of the ITU provides the forum for dissemination of orbital   arc requirements and avoidance of resolution of actual or potential   interference between satellites.  advance   publication: Lokhu kuchaza incwadi yesimemezelo   esisezingeni elithe thuthu. Yinqubo lapho izizwe zazisa ezinye ngekusasa   lezidingo zokuxhumana ngendlela esezingeni eliphakeme nangendlela   ejikelezayo. Lokhu kwenzeka ngokuletha ulwazi mayelana nokuxhumana   okusezingeni eliphezulu kanye nendawo abayifisayo ejikelezayo. Umnyango   olawula ezokusakaza owabe waziwa ngokuthi i International Frequency   Registration Board of the ITU ubhekela inkundla yokusakazwa kwezidingo   zendlela ejikelezayo kanye nokwexwaya. Izinqumo zesiqiniseko noma okungaba namandla okugxambukela phakathi   kokuxhumana ngohlelo oluthwebula ngokujikeleza kwemisebe emkhathini oluhamba   ngomoya. 
algorithm:   The application of a computing principal that sets the foundation for   processing or transmitting data.  algorithm:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusetshenziswa   kwemithetho yamakhompuyutha ebeka isisekelo sokusebenzisa noma ukuthumela   izinhlelo eziqoqwe ngohlelo lwe data ngekhompuyutha. Ukusetshenziswa   kwemithetho ebalulekile eyahlukene okufanele uyilandele lapho kusetshenziswa   ikhompuyutha. 
allocated   cost: Costs that have been divided among   the services on which they were incurred. For example, the division of   terminal or computer costs among cataloguing, interlibrary borrowing, and   online bibliographic searching.  allocated cost:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwabiwa kwezimali.   Izindlela ezahlukahlukene ngokwemisebenzi etholakele, njengokuhlukaniswa   kwezindleko zekhompuyutha njengo kuhlelwa kwamabhuku, ukubolekana ngaphakathi   emtapweni wezincwadi kanye nokufuna izincwadi ezisetshenziswe ngaleso   sikhathi. 
American   National Standards Institute (ANSI):   A non-profit organisation addressing standard setting, primarily by   certifying other expert bodies to formulate standards in a narrow area of   expertise. Essentially a group that develops standards for popular   programming languages.  American   National Standards Institute (ANSI):   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano engenanzuzo ebhekene nokuhlelwa kwamazinga nokugcizelela   eminye imikhakha evelele ukuze kube khona amazinga avumelekile emigudwini   eminyene yobuhlakani. Kuneqembu   elithuthukisa amazinga ezinhlelo ezidumile noma ezithandwa ngabantu. 
Amplitude   Modulation (AM): A means of controlling the range of   voltage in a wave.  Amplitude Modulation (AM):   Lokhu kuchaza ukwehliswa kokubanzi   noma ubukhulu. Indlela yokubheka izinga lamandla kagesi emoyeni. 
amplitude:   The difference between high and low points on a wave.  amplitude:   Lokhu kuchaza ububanzi noma ubukhulu.   Umehluko phakathi kwamazinga aphansi naphezulu emoyeni. 
analogue (analog) transmission:   Transmission of a continuously varying signal as opposed to transmission of a   discretely varying signal.  analogue (analog) transmission:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthumela okuqhubekayo   ngezimpawu ezishiyanayo noma ezingafani. Ukwedluliswa kwezinkomba ezehlukene   ngendlela eqhubekayo ephikisanayo. 
analogue (US spelling = analog): Information transmitted by varying   modulation over a radio carrier wave. Voice and music originate in analogue   form and are converted for transmission over digital facilities like   fibre-optic cables.  analogue: (US spelling = analog): Lokhu   kuchaza into engabonisa into eyimele njengoba injalo esikhundleni sokubonisa   ngezinombolo. Ulwazi olwedluliswa ngamaphimbo ehlukene ngokusebenzisa   umsakazo wasemoyeni. Izwi nomculo kuvela ngendlela ye-analogi bese   kuyashintshwa ukuze kudluliselwe emikhakheni yokusakaza yendlela yohlelo   olusebenzisa i analog. 
analogue   computer: A computer that calculates by using   physical analogues of the variables. (see also Digital Computer).  analogue computer:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwakudala   lokubonisa into injengoba injalo kunohlelo olusha olusebenzisa izinombolo.   Uhlobo lwekhompuyutha ethi lapho ibala isebenzise i analogue (bheka I digital   khompuyutha). 
analogue signal:   A signal that uses the continuous fluctuation over time between high and low   voltage.  analogue signal:   Lokhu kuchaza uphawu noma isignali   ebonisa into njengoba injalo. Uphawu olubonisayo olulokhu lushintshashintsha   emuva kwesikhashana phakathi kwamandla kagesi aphezulu naphansi. 
analysis team:   A group of people who study the existing information system to determine its   strengths and weaknesses.  analysis team:   Lokhu kuchaza idlanzana labacwaningi.   Yidlanzana labantu abafunda ngesimo solwazi olukhona ukuze bathole amandla   aso leso simo kanye nalokho okungenamandla. 
analysis:   All functions related to processing of information or data, including   manipulation and repackaging, question answering, data validation, and data   standardisation.  analysis:   Lokhu kuchaza ukucwaninga. Lapha   kuhlaziywa yonke imisebenzi ephathelene nokusetshenziswa kolwazi noma ulwazi   oluqukethwe yikhompuyutha. Lapha kungafakwa nokusebenzisa izandla kanye   nokupakishwa kwempahla kabusha, ukuphendulwa kwemibuzo, ukuba nesiqiniseko   ngalolo lwazi olugcinwe ku-khompuyutha, kanye nokwamukelwa kwalolo lwazi   olugcinwe ku-khompuyutha. 
anchor   and adjustment budgeting: An approach to   budgeting in that a budget for any given year is based on the budgets for   past years, with percentage adjustments.  anchor and adjustment   budgeting: Lokhu kuchaza ukuqiniswa kanye nokulungiswa kohlelo lwezimali. Yindlela   yokufinyelela ohlelweni lwezimali ngenxa yokuthi minyaka yonke uhlelo   lwezimali lusuke luncike kakhulu ohlelweni lwezimali lweminyaka eyedlule.   Lokhu bakwenza ngokuthi balungise amaphesenti. 
application   software: A type of computer program that   consists of programmes written to solve particular user problems.  application software:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenza kwalokho   okuthwala izinhlelo zekhompuyutha. Uhlobo oluthile lohlelo lwekhompuyutha   oluqukethe izinhlelo ezibhaliwe ukuze kuxazululwe izinkinga ezitholakala   lapho isetshenziswa. 
arbitrage:   A brokering function where a business acquires bulk capacity and resells it   to individual users who singularly could not qualify for the discounts   accruing to large-volume customers.  arbitrage:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthenga impahla   eningi uphinde uyithengisele abanye. Yindlela ewumhlomulo yokuthengelana impahla   lapho uthola ukuthi ibhizinisi lithenga impahla eningi bese liphinda futhi   liyithengisela abantu ngabanye ngenxa yokuthi bebengeke basithole isaphulelo   esinenzalo esitholwa ngabathenga kakhulu. 
ArianeSpace:   The world’s first commercial space transport company, established in 1980 by   36 European aerospace and electronics companies, 13 major banks, and the   French space agency. The company launches satellites from a facility in   Kourou, French Guyana.  ArianeSpace:   Lokhu kuchaza inkampani yezokuthutha yasemkhathini.   Yinkampani yokuqala yezokuthutha yasemkhathini emhlabeni jikelele,   eyasungulwa ngeminyaka yawo-1980, yizinkampani ezingu-36 zaseYurophu ezakha   izindizamkhathi kanye nezinkampani ezisebenzisa ugesi, amabhange amakhulu   angu 13 kanye nalabo abasebenzela amabhizinisi asemkhathini aseFransi.   Inkampani yona ithumela amasatellite iwasusa endaweni yaseKourou nase French   Guyana. 
Arithmetic/Logic   Unit (ALU): One of the basic elements in computer   hardware. The ALU performs calculations and makes logical comparisons.  Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo olusemqoka   lwekhompuyutha oluphathelene nezinhlelo zezibalo. Enye yezinto zekhompuyutha   ‘hardware’ ezibalulekile. Umsebenzi we ALU ukukala kanye nokuqhathanisa   okubalulekile. 
Artificial   Intelligence (AI): The ability to   mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain.  Artificial   Intelligence (AI): Lokhu kuchaza   ubuhlakani bokwenziwa. Lokhu kungasho ikhono lokulungisa noma uphindaphinde   leyomisebenzi eyenziwa yingqondo yomuntu. 
Artificial   Intelligence system: A system that   includes all people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge   needed for computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of   intelligence.  Artificial   Intelligence system: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lobuhlakani   obumazenzele noma obenziwe umuntu ngendlela ethile.  Isu lokuhlela elifaka bonke abantu,   inqubo yokwenza izinto ngendlela ethile, umshini oqukethe ulwazi   ngekhompuyutha, lokho okuphatha izinhlelo zekhompuyutha, lokho okuqukethwe   yikhompuyutha, ulwazi oludingwa yizinhlelo zekhompuyutha, kanye nemishini   ebonisa izimpawu zobuhlakani.
ASCII   (American Standard Code for Information Interchange):   A seven-bit code used to represent characters.  ASCll (American Standard Code for Information   Interchange): Lokhu kuchaza ikhodi eyamukelekile eMelika esetshenziselwa ulwazi   olungashintsheka. Ikhodi enezigqi eziyisikhombisa esetshenziselwa ukumela   izidingo. 
Assembly   of Parties: The forum where representatives of   nations that have associated with the INTELSAT Agreement and Inmarsat   Convention meet to address major policy issues involving the   co-operatives.  Assembly of Parties:   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano yamaqembu.   Inkundla noma indawo yokukhulumela lapho abamele izizwe ezizimbandakanya   nesivumelwano se INTELSAT kanye nombuthano we. Inmarsat behlangana ukuze   badingide imigomo eyizinqumo ezimbandakanya amabhizinisi ahlukahlukene. 
Asynchronous   Transfer Mode (ATM): An advanced form   of data transport whereby users can dynamically select the amount of   bandwidth and transmission speed required and change the assignment as   conditions warrant.  Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM):   Lokhu kuchaza ukwedluliswa kolwazi   oluqukethwe yikhompuyutha ngendlela esezingeni eliphezulu. Indlela esezingeni   eliphezulu yokudlulisa ulwazi oluqukethwe ikhompuyutha, lapho sithola ukuthi   labo abalusebenzisayo bangakwazi ukukhetha inani lalokho okuhlelwe   kwalandelana ngendlela yezinombolo kanye nokwedluliswa kwejubane   elidingekayo, kodwa futhi elibuye lishintshe njengalokhu umsebenzi uvuma. 
asynchronous   transmission: Transmission in which data is sent   one character at a time, with variable periods of time between characters.   This method is used for most communications via modem.  asynchronous transmission:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuthunyelwa   kohlamvu lolwazi.ngalunye. Lokhu kuphathelene nokuthunyelwa kolwazi   luthunyelwa ngokwesidingo esisodwa ngesikhathi. Lokhu kungabuye kwenziwe   ngezikhathi ezahlukene phakathi kwalezo zidingo. Lendlela isetshenziswa   kakhulu lapho kuxhunyanwa ngokusebenzisa umshini oxhunywe kwikhompuyutha. 
AT functions:   Signified by the @ symbol and built into spreadsheet programs. Invoked by   particular key combinations, they are used to automatically compute totals,   averages, and the like.    AT functions:   Lokhu kuchaza imisebenzi ye AT.   Ibonakala ngophawu luka @ olwenzelwe izinhlelo zama spreadsheets.   Ingashintshwa ngokusebenzisa inhlanganisela yohlobo oluthile lwezinombolo.   Lokhu kungasetshenziselwa ukubala amanani ngendlela ezishintshayo, kanye   nalokho okutholakalayo lopho sekuhlanganiswe wonke amanani, kanye nokunye. 
AT&T: American   Telephone & Telegraphic Company,   the largest US provider of domestic and international long-distance   communications services.  AT&T: American Telephone   & Telegraphic Company: Lokhu kuchaza inkampani yase Melika   ephathelene nohlelo oluthile lwezokuxhumana ngezingcingo. Inkampani enkulu   yase Melika ebhekene nezidingo zokuxhumana zangaphakathi ekhaya kanye   nezamabanga amade ezweni lonke. 
Atlantic   Ocean Region (AOR): One of three major   geographical regions, identified by a prominent body of water, that outline   the largest possible satellite footprint. A satellite hovering above the   equator midway between North America and Europe will have a footprint   illuminating all of the Atlantic Ocean and most of North, Central, and South   America; Europe and Africa.    Atlantic Ocean Region (AOR): Lokhu kuchaza isiqhingi sesigodi esisolwandle   samazwe aphesheya. Isigodi esisodwa kwezintathu ezinkulu ezikhethwe yilabo   abawumgwamanda obalulekile kwezamanzi. Lesisigodi sembozwe okuyimibalabala   kohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula kwemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini. Loluhlelo   lwesixhumanisi (satellite) luhlala ndawonye emkhathini noma emoyeni ngaphezu   kwenkabazwe maphakathi neNtshonalanga yase Melika kanye nase Yurophu.   Loluhlelo lokuxhumana lwe (satellite) lungaba nemibhalo ekhanyisayo olwandle   lwase Atlantic kanye nasengxenyeni enkulu yase Ntshonalanga maphakathi   naseNingizimu yase Melika ebizwa nge Yurophu kanye nase Afrika. 
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode:   a high-speed networking technology for broadband communications.  ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode:   Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana   yohlelo olunobuchwepheshe futhi olusheshayo. Ubuchwepheshe bokuxhumana lapho   kusetshenziswe inxakanxaka noma uthotho lwezintambo. Lobuchwepheshe buhamba   ngesivinini esisezingeni eliphezulu. 
ATM: Automated   Teller Machine: an unattended terminal-type device   that provides simple banking services such as cash withdrawals and transfer   of funds between accounts and account balances.  ATM: Automated   Teller Machine: Lokhu kuchaza umshini ozishintshayo noma ozisebenzela ngokwawo lapho   ungakwazi ukuthola khona imali noma izincazelo ngemali yakho. Lokhu-ke   kungolunye uhla lwemishini olubekwa ezikhungweni ezithile oluzisebenzelayo   noma olungadingi muntu ozolithinta lapha nalapha ukuze usebenze. Lemishini   yenza imisebenzi elula yasemabhange njengokukhishwa kwezimali, ukudluliselwa   kwezimali ezinhlelweni ezahlukahlukene ezisetshenziswa emabhange. 
attribute:   An inherent characteristic of a resource, service or product, use, user, etc.   For example, attributes of use include purpose of use; attributes of users   include information need, age, occupation, etc.  attribute:   Lokhu kuchaza izimpawu noma izici   ezithile ezingatholakala kunoma ubani kungaba ezokukhalipha noma   ezokukhubazeka. Lokhu kuchaza izimpawu noma izici ezikhona entweni ethize   noma kumuntu futhi ezisemqoka eziyimvelo, umsebenzi noma impahla,   ukusebenzisa, umsebenzisi, kanye nokunye (isibonelo) izimpawu noma izici zokusebenzisa   zixubene nesizathu sokusebenzisa; izimpawu noma izici zabasebenzisi zixuba   ulwazi oludingekayo, njenge minyaka noma ubudala, umsebenzi noma isikhundla   oqashelwe sona, kanye nokunye nje. 
audio   conferencing: Two-way voice communication between   two or more groups or three or more individuals, who are distant from one   another and are using a telecommunications medium.  audio conferencing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana ngezwi   elihamba ngohlelo oluthile lomsakazo emihlanganweni. Lolu uhlobo noma uhlelo   oluthile lokuxhumana ngezwi phakathi kwabantu ababili, abathathu, umuntu   ngamunye noma iqembu, bonke ke lababantu bangaqhelelana ukusuka komunye kuye   komunye futhi bebe besebenzisa indlela eyejwayelekile yokuxhumana   ngothelefoni. 
audit   trail: A systematic search of records that   allows the auditor to trace any output from the computer system back to its   source.  audit trail:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo noma indlela   esemthethweni futhi esemqoka elandelekayo noma esetshenziswayo ekugcinweni   noma ekulondolozweni kwemininingwane noma izinhlelo ezisemqoka. Lolu ke   uhlelo oluhlelekile ekufuneni noma ekuhlwayeni imininingwane noma izinhlelo   ezikwazi ukuthi umgcini mniningwane noma izinhlelo akwazi ukuphenya noma   afune inoma yiluphi ulwazi ohlelweni lwekhompuyutha ukusukela emuva emsukeni   noma embangeleni. 
auditing:   Analysing an organisation’s financial records and reports to determine   accuracy.  auditing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlela, ukulungisa   noma ukubhekisiswa kwemininingwane, izinhlelo eziphathelene nezezimali   kungaba okwemboni noma iqembu elithile kanye nemibiko echaza impumelelo noma   ubuchule. 
AUSSAT:   Refers to AUSSAT   Pty. Ltd., the operating company of the Australian   national satellite system.  AUSSAT:   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele igama   lemboni yaphesheya kwezilwandle i AUSSAT Pty Ltd. Iyona ke esebenza njengo   hlelo lwemboni yesizwe yohlelo olusezingeni eliphezulu lwesimanje   lobuchwepheshe emhlabeni jikelele oluhamba emkhathini noma emoyeni. 
Automatic   Data Processing (ADP): The processing   (classifying, sorting, calculating, summarising, recording, printing) of data   using computers and computer-related equipment.  Automatic Data Processing (ADP):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluzishintshayo   olusebenza ngekhompuyutha olukwazi ukuqoqa noma luthwale izinhlelo,   imininingwane ebalulekile. Lokhu ukuba sesimweni sokuqala ukwenza into ethile   noma ukuhlala phezukwayo uyenze, (ehlukanisayo, exazululayo, ebalayo,   efingqayo, eqophayo, ebhalayo) ngohlelo lwekhompuyutha ngekuquketheyo iphinde   isebenzise ikhompuyutha kanye nama thuluzi noma imishini ehambisana   nekhompuyutha. 
Automatic   Number Identification (ANI): A feature in   advanced telecommunication routing that provides the calling party’s   telephone number as the call is set up. Telephone companies have packaged   this feature as a way to screen calls in residences and a marketing and   billing tool in commercial applications.  Automatic Number Identification (ANI):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lobuhlakani   oluzishintshayo olukwazi ukubona noma ukukhetha izinombolo. Lokhu okufakwe   eqophelweni eliphezulu endleleni yokuxhumana ngo thelefoni futhi okusilethela   noma okusinika izinombolo zalabo abasebenzisa uthelefoni. Lokhu ke kwenzeka   ngesikhathi uthelefoni uphuma noma ungena. Izimboni zothelefoni sezisonge   noma zikhetha loluhlelo nje ngendlela yokucwaninga noma yokubheka othelefoni   bengena noma bephuma emakhaya kanye nendlela yokuzithengisa, ukuthumela noma   ukuqoqa izikweletu lapho kunesidingo esikhulu lokhu kungenzeka ezimbonini   ezinkulu. 
Automatic Teller Machine (ATM): An input/output device used to   conduct transactions with a bank.   Automatic Teller Machine (ATM): Lokhu kuchaza umshini ozishintshayo futhi   onganakwe muntu ongakhipha, noma ufake imali kuwo osebenzisa izinhlelo   zekhompuyutha zasemabhange. Uthwala imininingwane elethwayo, emukelwayo noma   imininingwane ehlelelwe ukuthunyelwa esisetshenziswa ekuqhubeni noma   ekudluliseni imitoliko yebhange. 
autonomy:   The assertion of independence and sovereignty, which if recognised by other   nations confers the right to participate in the ITU, INTELSAT, and other   forums where policy and investments decisions are made.  autonomy:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuzilawula. I   lungelo noma imvume yenkululeko nokuziphatha okungathi uma kuvunyiwe ezinye   izizwe kunike noma kulethe ilungelo lokubamba iqhaza noma ukuhlanganyela   enhlanganweni noma ezinhlelweni ze ITU, INTELSAT, kanye nezinye izinhlobo   zezinhlangano lapho kwenziwa khona izinqumo kanye nokuthatha izinqumo   ngokulondoloza okungaba okwezimali. 
average   or unit cost: The financial resources needed to   provide one unit of service.  average or unit cost:   Lokhu kuchaza izinga noma inani   elijwayelekile noma inani lokubiza kwento ngayinye.ngokujwayelekile.   Izinhlelo zosizo lwezimali okudingeka zinike noma zilethe imbumba noma uhlelo   olulodwa lomsebenzi. 
average   pricing: The regulatory practice of making   rates for a regulated service or service component uniform throughout a   nation or a state based on average nation-wide or state-wide figures for   costs and usage. In an averaged rate structure, the rate charged by a specific   vendor for a service or service component will be uniform no matter where in   the nation (inter-state services) or state (intrastate services) a subscriber   is located.  average pricing:   Lokhu kuchaza izinga lamanani   ajwayelekile noma.asohlelweni olujwayelekile. Ukulawula ukuzama ukwenza   izinkokhelo zomsebenzi obekelwe imibandela noma ingxenye yomsebenzi ofanayo   ngesizwe noma ngesimo esibambele ezingeni elejwayelekile esizweni sonke noma   esimweni esibanzi sezinombolo zezindleko zokusetshenziswa. Ezingeni noma   enanini elejwayekile lesimo senkokhelo, inkokhelo eshintshwe umdayisi   ohlukile ngenxa yomsebenzi noma ingxenye yomsebenzi ezofana noma ingabe   ikuphi esizweni noma emhlabeni umxhasi ube esetholakala. 

 

 

B
 
back-end   computer: A second computer behind the   front-end communications computer; its purpose is to perform the major data   processing.  back-end computer:   Lokhu kuchaza ikhompuyutha ehlelelwe   ukusebenzisa uhlelo oluthile. Lena ikhompuyutha yesibili ebekwe ngemuva kanti   futhi ingaphambili ekugcineni kwenye ikhompuyutha esebenzisa uhlelo   lokuxhumana; umsebenzi wayo osemqoka ekufanele iwenze ukuqoqa noma ukugcina   izinhlelo, imininingwane kungaba yizinombolo noma amagama kungaba okwenzeke   namuhla, kudala noma izolo. 
backward   chaining: The process of starting with   conclusions and working backward to the supporting facts.  backward   chaining: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumeka ngokubuyela emuva. Inqubo yokuqala   ekugcineni bese usebenza ngokusuka emuva ngokusekela amaphuzu. 
balanced   loading requirement: A previous FCC   requirement, intended to ensure support for satellite services, that   international record carriers and AT&T use international cable and   satellite facilities equally in the North Atlantic region.  balanced   loading requirement: Lokhu kuchaza isidingo sokulayisha   okulinganayo macala onke.  Isidingo   saphambili se (FCC) okusuke kuqondwe ngaso ukuthi kube nesiqiniseko   sokusekela izidingo zohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula kwemisebe ejikelezayo   emkhathini (satellite) ezilinganayo nalezo zesifunda saseNyakatho ye   Atlantic. 
balanced   loading: A regulatory policy requiring   international carriers to activate satellite and submarine cables on a   prescribed ratio or an even basis with an eye toward bolstering use of the   more expensive or developing transmission technology.  balanced loading:   Lokhu kuchaza ukulayisha ngokulinganayo nxazonke noma macala onke.  Umgomo owumthetho odinga ukuthi izithuthi   zikazwelonke zivuselele izintambo zezinhlelo zokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   ngemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini kanye nezemikhumbi ehamba ngaphansi kwamanzi   ngokwezinga elibekiwe noma ngendlela efanayo ezogada ukuthi kube khona   ukwesekelwa kokusetshenziswa kwalokho okubizayo noma ukwedluliswa   kobuchwepheshe obusathuthuka. 
band:   A term that refers to a specific range of frequency spectrum. For example,   the C-band refers to frequencies used to uplink and download traffic to   satellites around 6GHz uplink and 4GHz downlink.  band:   Lokhu kuchaza isiteshi noma isikhungo   sokumukela okungaba esanoma iyiphi inhlobo yohlelo lokuxhumana. Igama noma   itemu eliqonde ukuhlelwa okuthile kokuphindaphindwa kwezwi emoyeni. Isibonelo   kungaba i (C-band) ebhekiswe ekuphindaphindweni okusetshenziswayo ukuze   kuhlanganise kuphinde kutholakale ngokushesha ulwazi lwalokho okuminyene okubheke   ezinhlelweni zokuxhumana ezisebenzisa uhlelo oluthwebulayo ngemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini ngesilinganiso esingu (6 GHz) lapho kwenyukwa kanye no   (4 GHz) lapho kwehliwa. 
bandwidth   on demand: The ability of users to adjust up or   down the amount of capacity leased from a carrier, primarily through new   technologies that make it easier to aggregate bit streams.  bandwith   on demand: Lokhu kuchaza ukudingeka kobubanzi besikhungo sokumukela uhlelo   oluthile lokuxhumana. Okuphathelene nekhono lalabo abayisebenzisayo lokuthi   bakwazi ukulungisa ngendlela eya phansi kanye nenyukayo lapho befuna inani   lobukhulu balokho okubolekiwe kulezo zithuthi ngendlela entsha ebalulekile   yezobuchwepheshe ukuze kube lula ukuhlanganisa leyomikhakha. 
bandwidth:   The range of frequencies required for the transmission of a signal, usually   given inhertz, which can be sent over a medium simultaneously. More   bandwidth is required for carrying more complex signals; for example, in the   case of full-motion video as opposed to simple voice messages without   distortion. Also entails the range of frequencies that can be transmitted   over a particular communications channel, which also determines the maximum   bits per second that the channel will accommodate without excessive   distortion. Typically, bandwidth requirements grow as the amount of   information to be transmitted increases. For example, an AM radio signal   contains 10 kHz, while an FM channel contains 200 kHz and a broadcast   television signal contains 6 MHz.  bandwidth:   Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo sokumukela   uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Izinga lokuphindaphinda elidingekayo lapho   kuhanjiswa izimpawu ezibonisayo noma amasignali anikezwa izikali ezithwala   amazwi ezibizwa ngama (hertz) angathunyelwa kwezokuxhumana ngesikhathi   esifanayo kanyekanye. Lokhu kwenyuka kwezinga lokuphindaphinda izinombolo   kuyadingeka ukuze kuthwale izimpawu zokubonisa noma amasignali amaningi   njengesithombe esiphelele esixhunywe kumabonakude esingafani nemiyalezo   ethunyelwa ngezwi elejwayelekile elihlangene. Lokhu futhi kungasho izinga   lokuphindaphinda amazwi elingahanjiswa ngemizila ethile yezokuxhumana. Leyo   mizila iyona okufanele ibonise ukuthi ingakwazi ukuthatha into eshaya   kangakanani ngesikhathi ngaphandle kokuthi kube khona into eyinhlakanhlaka.   Izidingo zalokhu kuphindaphindeka kuyakhula njengalokhu ulwazi oludluliswayo   lukhula. Njengokuthi nje izimpawu ezibonisayo noma amasignali omsakazo   wohlelo lokumukela lwe (AM) aqukethe isikali esithwala amandla sokuxhumana   esibizwa nge (10 KHz) kanti imizila yohlelo lokumukela lwe (FM) oluqukethe   isikali esithwala amandla okuxhumana angu (200 KHz) kanye nezimpawu noma   amasignali, ukusakaza kumabonakude okuqukethe isikali esithwala amandla   okuxhumana esingu (6 MHz). 
barriers   to market entry: Structural, regulatory, and trade   limitations to competition by domestic or foreign enterprises. Such barriers   include prohibitions or limitations on the amount of foreign investment in a   telecommunication service provider, reserving service monopolies for the   incumbent carrier, imposing duties and other financial impediments on the   equipment or services, and subjecting foreign carriers and manufacturers to   more burdensome certification, testing, and licensing burdens.  barriers   to market entry: Lokhu kuchaza izinto ezivimbela ukungenwa   kwezimakethe noma ezivimbayo ukuze kungenwe ezimakethe. Izinkinga kungaba   ilokho okuphathelene nezakhiwo, imithetho kanye nokuthengisa okunemithetho   ethile lapho kufanele nibangisane nosomabhizinisi bangaphakathi kanye   nabangaphandle. Kulezo zinto eziyizinkinga noma izithiyo kungabalwa   ukwenqatshelwa noma ukunqunyelwa inani lemali okufanele uyikhokhe   kulezozimali ezilondolozwa emazweni angaphandle zilondolozelwa izidingo   ezibhekene nokuxhumana, ukuvumela izithuthi ezibalulekile ukuthi kube yizona   kuphela ezinelungelo lokugcina izidingo, ukulawulwa kwemali yenhlawulo   kaHulumeni, kanye nezinye izingqinamba eziphathelene nemali ezintweni   ezingamathuluzi noma izidingo. Kuba khona nokuphoqelela izithuthi kanye   nabakhiqizi bangaphandle ngokuthi kube bukhuni ukuthola imvume, ukuhlolwa,   kanye nobunzima bokuthola amalungelo okushayela. 
baseband:   Transmission media that permit only one transmission signal at a time.  baseband:   Lokhu kuchaza isixhumanisi esivumela   ukuthi kudlule uphawu noma isignali eyodwa ngesikhathi.
Basic   Rate Interface (BRI): The least common   denominator of capacity in ISDNs, composed of two 64-Kbps bearer circuits and   one 16-Kbps data channel.  Basic   Rate Interface (BRI): Lokhu kuchaza izinga elijwayelekile   ekubambisaneni ngokuxhumana kwezinhlelo ezithile. Isibonakalisi sokugcina   esejwayelekile esibonisa ubukhulu bama ISDN obuqukethe izikali ezithwala   amandla ezimbili zokuxhumana ezinamandla angu 64-Kbps asezikhungweni   ezithwala amandla kagesi kanye nesikali esithwala amandla okuxhumana esisodwa   Kbps esinemizila noma imigudu eyishumi nesithupha 16. 
basic   service: A regulatory term in the United   States, subsequently adopted by the Canadian Radio Television and   Telecommunications Commission, for a carrier offering of a pure transmission   capability over a communications path that is virtually transparent in terms   of its interaction with customer-supplied information.  basic   service: Lokhu kuchaza isidingo noma usizo, imisebenzi esemqoka noma   ejwayelekile. Igama noma itemu elisemthethweni elisetshenziswa kakhulu   phesheya nezilwandle ezweni lase Melika, labuye lasetshenziswa abekhomishani   ephethe ezokusakaza kanye nokuxhumana yezwe laphesheya kwezilwandle elaziwa   nge Canada. Lokhu ke kwakwenzelwa lezozithuthi ezinamandla okudlulisa ukuxhumana   ngendlela esobala lapho kuhlanganiswa nolwazi oluvela kubathengi. 
basic   services: The switching, routing, and   transmission of voice or data provided by facilities-based carriers   traditionally subject to common carrier regulation. Enhanced-service providers   use basic services such as “plain vanilla” building blocks over which   addition services and features are added.  basic services:   Lokhu kuchaza izidingo noma   imisebenzi eyisidingo futhi esemqoka. Ukuvulela amandla kagesi, ukuhamba,   kanye nokuthunyelwa kwezwi noma imininingwane enika amalungelo abhekene   nokuthwala okujwayelekile ukuze ibhekane nemithetho ethile emiselwe ukuthwala   lokho okujwayelekile. Ukunezezelwa noma ukwandiswa kwezidingo ezibhekele   izidingo ezisemqoka nezisobala njengo kwakhiwa kwezitini noma isisekelo   okunganezezelwa ngazo izidingo. 
Basic   Serving Arrangement (BSA): A term used to   identify the components in generic connections between enhanced-service   providers and facilities-based carriers providing basic services. BSAs   consist of the access links between facilities as well as the transport,   routing, and functions.  Basic   Serving Arrangement (BSA): Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlelwa kokusabalalisa noma   kokuletha okungaba noma inhloboni yosizo olusemqoka. Igama elisetshenziswa   ukukhomba lezozingxenye ezakhayo ekuhlanganeni kokuwelisa phakathi   kokukhulisa imisebenzi kubasebenzi kanye nama lungiselelo abhekene nabathwali   abanikezela ngemisebenzi eyisisekelo. Loluhlelo lwe (BSA) lumayelana   nokuthunyelwa kwalokho okwenza umsebenzi wokuhlanganisa lezozidingo   zokuthutha, ukuthumela kanye nezinye izidingo ezingasetshenziswa. 
batch   processing: A technique in which data is coded   and collected into groups for processing during a single machine run. This is   ideal for a large number of business transactions that occur regularly and in   sequence.  batch   processing: Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenzisa ngesikhathi esisodwa   noma ukusebenza ngokuningi okuqoqelwe noma okuboshelwe ndawonye. Isu lokwenza   umsebenzi lapho uthola ukuthi imininingwane eyimibhalo efihlekile kanye   nokuqoqwa ngamaqoqwana ukuze kuqhutshekwe nokwenziwa komsebenzi   ngokusebenzisa umshini owodwa. Lokhu kuyindlela enhle engasetshenziswa lapho   kuqhutshwa imisebenzi emikhulu yamabhizinisi. Lokhu kungenzeka njalo kanye   nangendlela yokulandelanisa. 
baud:   A unit of measure (the baud rate) for the variability of transmission   rates.  baud:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokukala izinga   lokuthumela okungafani. Indlela eyisikali sokwedluliswa kwentela ehlukene. 
bearer   circuit: A transmission pathway that can be subdivided   into channels of less bandwidth or data throughput through multiplexing. For   example, a bearer circuit with a total capacity of 64 Kbps can be subdivided   into four channels with the capacity to transmit one voice grade channel  bearer circuit:   Lokhu kuchaza umzila wokuthumela   ongaphinde futhi uhlukaniswe ukuze kuphume eminye imizila. Indlela   esetshenziswayo lapho kukhona lokho okuthunyelwayo okungahlukaniswa ngemizila   ephansi ngobubanzi obuhlanganisiwe noma imininingwane edluliswa ngendlela eyinxakanxaka.   Isibonelo kungaba ileso sikhungo esiphatha ugesi esinomthamo ongu 64 Kbps   ongahlukaniswa futhi ube imizila emine enomthamu wokuthumela izwi elilodwa   ngebanga lomzila ngamunye.
bearer   service: A type of telecommunications service   that provides the capability for the transmission of signals between   user-network interfaces.  bearer service:   Lokhu kuchaza umphathi noma noma usizo okungaba olwanoma iluphi uhlobo.   Uhlobo lokuxhumana ngothelefoni ngendlela ebhekene nokuthi kube namandla   okudlulisa lezozinkomba ezitholakala phakathi kokuxhumanisa ukusetshenziswa   kwezintambo zokuxhumana. 
beggar-thy-neighbour   policy: Attempts by one country to reduce   unemployment and to increase domestic output by raising tariffs and erecting   non-tariff barriers to reduce imports. This strategy has proven risky because   it can provoke retaliation.  beggar-thy-neigbour   policy: Lokhu kuchaza Imizamo eyenziwa izwe elithile ukuze kwehle izinga   lokuntuleka kwemisbenzi kanye nokunyuka kokuhlelwa kwemisebenzi yasekhaya.   Lokhu kungenziwa ngokuthi kunyuswe intela engaba izithiyo lapho kuncishiswa   impahla engenayo. Lelicebo libonakalisa ingozi engadala ukuthi kube   nempikiswano. 
benchmark   test: An examination that compares   computer systems operating under the same conditions.  benchmark   test: Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlola okuqhathanisa izinhlelo zekhompuyutha ezisebenza   ngaphansi kwesimo esifanayo. 
Bilateral   Trade Agreement: A formal or informal agreement   between two nations.  Bilateral   Trade Agreement: Lokhu kuchaza isivumelwano sokuqala esiphathelene nokuthengisa.   Isivumelwano esisemthethweni kanye naleso esingekho emthethweni phakathi   kwezizwe ezimbili. 
bill   of materials: A description of the parts needed to   make final products.    bill   of materials: Lokhu kungasho ukuchazwa kwezingxenye ezidingekayo lapho sekwenziwa   umkhiqizo wokugcina. 
Binary   Numbering System: A method of   counting based on the digits 1 and 0, equivalent to the states of on and off   in an electrical circuit.  Binary Numbering System:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwezinombolo.ezihamba ngazimbili. Indlela yokubala   encike ezinombolweni ezimbili ezingu 1 no 0. Lokhu kuyafana nezinga lokuqala   into kanye nokuyiqeda lapho kusetshenziswa izinto zikagesi. 
binary:   Where only two values or states are possible for a particular condition; for   example, “On” or “Off”, or “One” or “Zero”.  binary:   Lokhu kuchaza okuhamba ngakubili. Lapha sithola amazinga amabili noma izimo   ezenziwe ngendlela yokuthi kube lula ukusebenzisa into ethle. Isibonelo   kungaba ukuqala nokuphetha okungu (ON kanye no OFF), kanye no (1 no 0). 
bit   error rate: The extent to which a digital   transmission network generates an error. The rate can be reduced through   error detection and correction.  bit   error rate: Lokhu kuchaza isigqi sezinga lokwenziwa kwamaphutha. Izinga lapho   sithola ukuthi kwenzeka amaphutha lapho kwedluliswa ukuxhumana ngendlela   yohlelo lwezinombolo. Lelizinga lokwenza amaphutha lingancishiswa ngokuthi   iphutha lisheshe libonakale futhi lilungiswe. 
bit   rate (also known as throughput): The aggregate   rate in a digital transmission path expressed in bits per second (speed at   which bits are transmitted). For example, a reasonably fast modem can handle   data at the rate of 14,400 bps.  bit   rate (also known as throughput): Lokhu   kuchaza izinga lesigqi sesivinini sokuhamba kohlelo oluthile lokuxhumana.   Inhlanganisela yesilinganiso esihanjiswa ngendlela ebalayo noma esebenzisa   izinombolo. Lokhu kungaboniswa ngokuhamba kwazo lezozicucu ngomzuzwana   (isivinini ezidlula ngaso lezizicucwana) (amadivice). Isiboniso kungaba   ukushesha komshinyana oxhunywe kwikhompuyutha. Lomshini ungadlulisa   imininingwane ngezinga lesikali sejubane elingu 14,400 bps.
bit:   A binary digit, either 1 or 0. A single character of a language having   exactly two distinct kinds of characters. Used when 0, 1 are used without   numeric significance. It is a contraction of the term “binary digit”; a unit   of information represented by a zero or one. The speed of information   transmission is measured in bits per second (bps).  bit:   Lokhu kuchaza isigqi sesivinini okungaba esokuhamba noma sokusebenza kohlelo   oluthile lokuxhumana. Izinombolo ezihamba ngazimbili okungaba u 1 no 0.   Uphawu olulodwa lolimi lungaba nezimpawu ezimbili ezihlukene. Lokhu   kungasetshenziswa lapho u 1 no 0 engasetshenziswa ngendlela yokubala.  Kusuke kuncishiswa igama lalokho okuhamba   ngakubili (binary digit). Lokhu kungasho ingxenye yolwazi ejwayele ukumela   okungekho njengo (0) noma okukodwa (1). Isivinini sokudlulisa ulwazi singakalwa   ngokuhamba kocezu ngomzuzwana.
bits   per second (bps): The measure by   which the speed of a data transmission medium is measured.    bits   per second (bps): Lokhu kuchaza isivinini noma ukukalwa   kokuhamba kwesigqi esithumela uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Isikali esenziwa   lopho kukalwa isivinini sokuthunyelwa kolwazi noma uhlelo oluthile   lokuxhumana. 
boomerang   box: A device that provides dial tone to   callers in another country, thereby providing them with a virtual presence in   a location with lower outbound international long-distance telephone   rates.  boomerang box:   Lokhu kuchaza isicucu noma umshini oletha umsindo wokuxhumana kubasebenzisi   bothelefoni bamanye amazwe. Umshini osetshenziswa uma kushayelwa abantu   abahlala kwamanye amazwe. Lokhu ke   kungasiza ngokuthi imali ekhokhelwe othelefoni abaya emazweni akude ibencane. 
boresight:   The centre point on Earth where a satellite’s radiated transmissions are   strongest.  boresight:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo emaphakathi emhlabeni lapho kuhlaba khona imisebe   yohlelo lokuxhumana lwesatellite. Kungaba indawo ephakathi nendawo lapho   ongathola ukuthi ukwedluliswa kokukhanya kohlelo lokuxhumana olusebenzisa   ukuthwebula ngemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini (satellite) kuba namandla   amakhulu. 
bottleneck:   A facility or portion of a route where traffic aggregates, often according   the operator or service provider the opportunity to charge monopoly rates and   to engage in anti-competitive practices. Refers to local communications   company network service, function or facility currently subject to some   degree of monopoly control, which competitors cannot economically duplicate,   but to which they require access in order to compete.  bottleneck:   Lokhu kuchaza into ethile eqoqene ndawonye futhi eminyene uma iya   ngasekuphumeni. Ingxenye yendlela lapho uthola ukuthi kuhlanganiswe konke   lokho okuminyene. Lokhu kunganikeza lowo ongumxhumanisi noma lowo obhekene   nezidingo ithuba lokuthi abize intela okungazange kuboniswane noma   kuxoxiswane namuntu ngayo. Lokhu kubhekiswe kulezo zimboni eziphathelene   nezidingo zokuxhumana ukuze zikwazi ukusebenza ngendlela yokuthi bakwazi   ukuphatha yonke into. Lokho kungeza ukuthi labo abancintisanayo bangakwazi   ukusebenzisa lokho okwenziwa ngabanye kwezomnotho, kodwa bebe belifuna   ilungelo lokungena ukuze bancintisane.
bottom-up   budgeting: A budget approach that starts with   lower-level managers and decision makers and works upward.  bottom-up   budgeting: Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokwabiwa   kwezimali eqala kubaphathi abasezingeni eliphansi kanye nalabo abenza   izinqumo kuqhebeke kuye phezulu.
bottom-up   technique: The lowest-level modules are written   first in this approach to systems design. They are tested and debugged, then   the next higher levels are treated in the same manner.  bottom-up   technique: Lokhu kuchaza iqhinga lobuhlakani   lokuqala ngokusebenzisa into esezingeni eliphansi bese ugcina ngaleyo   esezingeni eliphezulu. Izinga eliphansi lesigaba elibhalwa kuqala kulokhu   kubhekana nohlelo lwendlela yokusungula okuyimidwebo Ziyahlolwa bese zingabe   zisalalelwa, bese kuthi labo abalandelayo abasemazingeni aphezulu baphathwe   ngendlela efanayo.
brainstorming:   A process in which members of a group offer ideas spontaneously, fostering   creativity and participation.  brainstorming:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuveza imibono okungahleliwe okungenziwa iqembu elithile   mayelana nenkulumo ethile. Uhlelo lapho uthola ukuthi amalunga enhlangano   ethile aveza imibono ngendlela engahleliwe, ngokusiza ekwandiseni   okusunguliwe kanye nangokubambi iqhaza.
British   Telecom (BT): British Telecommunication Public   Limited Company (plc), the major provider of domestic and international   telecommunications services in the United Kingdom; British Telecom operates   the fourth largest telecommunications system in the world. It is the dominant   local and international carrier in the United Kingdom.  British   Telecom (BT): Lokhu kuchaza imboni yezwe laphesheya   kwezilwandle yasezweni elibizwa nge Brithani ephathelene nohlelo   lwezokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Imboni ephathelene nezokuxhumana yaphesheya   kwezilwandle yomphakathi wezwe lase Brithani. Lemboni iyona ebhekene   nezidingo zokuxhumana zangaphakathi kanye nezangaphandle zika zwelonke.   Phesheya nezilwandle e United Kingdom i British Telcom okuyimboni ephathelene   nezokuxhumana ingenye yezimboni ezine ezinkulu eziphathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana   izwe lonke. Iyona ezedlula zonke ezinye izimboni zangaphakathi kanye   nezangaphandle e United Kingdom.
broadband   services: A range of communications services   that require and use larger bandwidth than traditional voice messaging. A   broadband communication system can simultaneously accommodate television,   voice, data and many other services.  broadband   services: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwemisebenzi   yokuthumela izimpawu noma amasignali ohlelo lokuphindaphinda okuningi   ngesikhathi esisodwa. Izidingo zokuxhumana ezihlukene, ezidinga ukusebenzisa   ubukhulu nobubanzi obungaphezu kwendlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela umyalezo   ngephimbo. Lezizinhlelo zokuxhumana ezibanzi zingangenisa kanyekanye uhlelo   lokuxhumana ngomabonakude, amaphimbo, imininingwane, kanye nezinye izidingo   eziningi.
broadband:   Those media that permit numerous signal frequencies to be transmitted at the   same time. Also called wideband  broadband:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lwesikhungo noma   isiteshi esimukela emkhathini noma emoyeni kungaba esomsakazo noma   umabonakude. Labo bacosheli bezindaba abavumela inqwaba yeziqwashisi noma   izikhombisi eziphindaphindayo ukuba zithunyelwe ngesikhathi esisodwa. Lokhu   futhi kungabizwa ngokuthi isikhumulo noma isiteshi esibanzi. 
broadcast coverage:   In radio communications, the geographical area within which service from a   radio communications facility can be received.  broadcast coverage:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusakazwa kwezinhlelo   ezithile kungaba semsakazweni noma kumabonakude. Ekuxhumaneni ngomsakazo   lapho ukuthumela noma ukudlulisa kusuke kuqondwe ukuxhumana okuqondile   emphakathini ojwayelekile. Lomsebenzi ungahambisana noma uxube ukuthunyelwa   kwamazwi, ukuthunyelwa kokusakaza kukamabonakude nanoma ingayiphi indlela   yokuthumela. 
broadcasting service:   A radio-communication in which the transmissions are intended for direct   reception by the general public. This service may include sound   transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmissions.   broadcasting   service: Lokhu kuchaza umsebenzi wokusakaza. Uhlelo lokuxhumana ngomsakazo lapho   ukuthumela noma ukudluliswa kokuxhumana kuhloswe ekubhekisweni ngqo   ekuphumeleleni komphakathi ojwayelekile ukuthi uthole ukuxhumeka. Lemisebenzi   noma usizo lunga xuba noma luhlanganisa ukuthunyelwa komsindo, ukuthunyelwa   kukamabonakude noma ezinye izindlela zokuxhumana ngokuthumela.
broadcasting:   Any transmission of programmes, whether or not encrypted, by radio waves or   other means of telecommunication for reception by the public by means of a   broadcasting-receiving apparatus but does not include any such transmission   of programmes that is made solely for performance or display in a public   place.  broadcasting:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusakaza okungachaza   izindlela ezahlukahlukene njengokukamabonakude noma ngokomsakazo. Kungaba   yinoma ikuphi ukuthunyelwa kwezinhlelo, okungenzeka kube okusobala noma   okucashisiwe ngesikali sokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni somsakazo noma ngezinye   izindlela zokuxhumana ngothelefoni ukuze umphakathi uzwane ngenxa yezicucu   ezimukela ukusakaza kodwa zibe zingaxubene nokudluliswa kwezinhlelo ezenzelwe   kuphela imibukiso noma ukwenza endaweni yomphakathi. 
BTI:   British Telecom International: the division of British Telecom responsible   for operating its international telecommunications network and other   international business such as consulting and joint ventures.  BTI: British   Telecom Internatoinal: Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele igama lemboni yaphesheya   nezilwandle ezweni lase Brithani ephathelene nezokuxhumana kulelozwe.   Lenkampani noma imboni iyingxenye ebhekele ukuqhuba uhlelo lokuxhumana   emhlabeni nakweminye imisebenzi noma amabhizinisi emhlabeni anjengo   kubonisana, inhlanganisela yezinkampani noma izimboni ekwenzeni imisebenzi   noma ekufuneni amathuba amasha.
Build,   Operate and Transfer (BOT): A method for infrastructure   development in which an enterprise agrees to build a facility, operate it for   a specified time period, and then transfer title to the national government   or carrier who will then take over operations after having had time to   develop operational and management expertise.  Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT):   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi akha, qhuba, dlulisa. Indlela yokuthuthukisa   ingqalasizinda lapho ibhizinisi livuma ukwakha. Enye yezindawo noma imishini   ezoba usizo, lendawo ibe isiyasetshenziswa ngesikhathi esithile kuphela futhi   bese kudluliselwa kuHulumeni wezwe okuncane noma abathuthi, abathwali   abazoqhubeka nomsebenzi emuva kokuba sebeke baba nesikhathi sokunweba   imisebenzi nobuhlakani bokuphatha.
Build,   Own and Operate (BOO): A method for   infrastructure development in which an enterprise agrees to build and operate   a facility. This arrangement creates a service franchise and the incentive   for the operator to upgrade and maintain facilities without fear of   nationalisation.  Build, Own and   Operate (BOO): Lokhu kuchaza ukwakha, ukuba   nelungelo, kanye nokuqhuba. Indlela   yokuthuthukisa ingqalasizinda lapho ibhizinisi livuma ukwakha no kuqhuba   isizinda. Loluhlelo ludala umsebenzi okubanjiswene ngawo kanye   nokugqugquzeleka okungaba inkokhelo kumqhubi noma umlawuli ukuze akwazi   ukulungisa nokugcina izakhiwo noma izimpahla ngale kokusaba ukuthi   zingathathwa uHulumeni.
bundling:   Practice of combining separate hardware, software and services into a package   offered at a single price.  bundling:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlanganisa ndawonye.   Ukuzama noma ukwenza ngokuzama ukuhlanganisa okuqinile nokuthambile kube   umthwalo owodwa bese uthengiswa ngenani elilodwa.
bus line width:   The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any one time.  bus line width:   Lokhu kuchaza ububanzi balokho okuthwala izintambo ezithintekayo   zekhompuyutha ezithumela imininingwane noma uhlelo oluthile zilususa kwenye   ingxenye yekhompuyutha ziphinde ziludlulisele kwezinye izingxenye. Ukukala   ngezinombolo amahlandla noma isivinini lezizintambo ezithintekayo   zekhompuyutha ezingadlulisa noma zithumele noma yinini.
bus   line: The physical wiring that transfers   data from the CPU to other system components.  bus line:   Lokhu kuchaza lokho okuthwala izintambo ezithintekayo zekhompuyutha ezidlulisa   iminingwane esuka kwenye ingxenye yekhompuyutha zidluliselwe kwezinye   izingxenye zekhompuyutha.
bus   network: A network of computers and devices   on a single telecommunications line.  bus   network: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo noma isithwali   esikwazi ukuhlanganisa inqwaba yamakhompuyutha kanye neminye imishini   ekutheni zonke lezizinto zikwazi ukusebenza ngokufana ngesikhathi esifanayo   futhi zisebenzise umgudu owodwa wokuxhumana.
bus:   An electrical channel or path carrying data from one part of a computer system   to another.  bus:   Lena isithwali noma umgudu ohamba ngokusebenza ngombani noma ugesi okuthwele   noma okuphethe izinhlelo noma imininingwane esuka kwenye ingxenye yohlelo   lwekhompuyutha ikudlulisela kwenye.
bypass:   A term used to describe arrangements of facilities that do not use local   exchange carrier (LEC) switched access services and hence avoid payment of   switched access charges.  bypass:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuyeka enye indlela yokuxhumana bese usebenzisa enye ecishe   ifane nayo futhi esebenza njengayo. Isivumelwano esisetshenzisiwe ukuchaza   amalungiselelo ezimpahla, izindawo, amathuluzi, izidingo ezingasebenzisi   izithuthi ezishintshanayo ezitholakala lana ezweni lakithi imisebenzi   eshintshiwe futhi engenekayo noma etholakalayo kanye nokusukela ekugwemeni   izindleko zokuthola ithuba lokuzisondeza noma lokusebenzisa into ethize   ngokubiziwe noma okufuniwe.
bypass:   The use of alternative facilities or services to what incumbent carriers   offer, such as the use of cable television systems or digital termination   systems to access interexchange carrier facilities rather than the incumbent   telephone company’s wireline network.  bypass:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuyeka ukuxhuma   endaweni ejwayelekile bese uxhuma kwenye indawo engaba ngaphambili kwale   eyejwayelekile. Ukusebenzisa amanye amathuluzi, izimpahla noma   imisebenzi kulokho abathwali abagunyaziwe abangabonelela noma banxephezele   ngakho, njengo kusetshenziswa kohlelo lwezintambo zikamabonakude noma   izinhlelo eziqeda izinombolo ukuze kutholakale ithuba ezimpahleni, emathuluzini   kwisithuthi esishintshayo futhi esinobudlelwane ngale kwabagunyaza noma   abavumela ukuxhumana ngolayini obenziwe ngocingo noma imigudu yokuxhumana   eyakhiwe ngezingcingo zemboni yama thelefoni. 
byte:   An intermediate unit of data transmission capacity composed of 8 bits. A   byte can represent a letter, a numeric digit, or a character.  byte:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye noma iqhezu lesikhala noma indawo lapho ikhompuyutha   ingagcina khona uhlelo, imigomo ulwazi kanye nokunye okusemqoka. Amandla   engxenye noma isizinda salokho okuthwala izinhlelo, izinqumo kanye neminye   imininingwane ngokohlelo lwekhompuyutha futhi iphinde ithumele yakhiwe noma   inezigqi eziyisishagalombili. Iqhezu, noma isikhala kungamela igama, inombolo   ebalekayo noma izinhlobonhlobo ezithile zemibhalo engafani.

 

C
 
C&W:   Cable and Wireless plc: a British-based   world-wide group that provides and operates the public telecommunications   services of many countries and territories under franchise of prescribed   duration granted to it by the government concerned. It has its headquarters   in London.  C&W:   Cable and Wireless plc: Lokhu kuchaza   igama elinqanyuliwe noma elifingqiwe elichaza izindlela zokuxhumana   ngaphandle kwezintambo noma ngezintambo ezingasebenza ngogesi futhi   ezingahamba emhlabathini, emanzini kanye nangaphezu komhlabathi. Lana   kukhulunywa ngeqembu lomhlaba wonke elizinze phesheya kwezilwandle endaweni   ebizwa nge Brithani eliletha futhi liphinde liqhube noma lenze imisebenzi   yokuxhumanisa umphakathi wamazwe amaningi kanye nemingcele noma izindawo   ezingaphansi kwalabo ababambisene ngokuhlanganyela ngokwemvume yezinsuku   nesikhathi abasinikiwe, uHulumeni   ophethe. Ihovisi eliyinhloko kulomsebenzi liphesheya kwezilwandle endaweni   ebizwa ngokuthi i London.
cablehead:   The oceanfront location where a submarine cable makes a landfall and where   power, amplification, and multiplexing functions take place.  cablehead:   Lokhu kuchaza isizinda, isiteshi lapho lezizintambo ezithwala ukuxhumana   futhi ezingasebenza ngogesi zihlangana khona futhi ilapho zithola khona   amandla amaningi ukuze zisebenze ngokwejwayelekile. Indawo lapho umgwaqo noma   indlela lapho intambo ehamba ngaphansi kwamanzi ihlala emhlabathini   esiqhingini lapho futhi ukwandiswa kwamandla kanye neminye imisebenzi enzima   yenzeka khona.
call-back   services: Providing outbound international   long-distance calling capabilities to customers in another country through   the use of a device that processes a request for dial tone. Call-back service   can be initiated by a conventional inbound international long-distance call   that is terminated before triggering a toll charge.  call-back   services: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   ongakwazi ukushayela ucingo, ithelefoni emuva kumuntu obekade ekushayele.   Ukukwazi ukunika okuphumayo emhlabeni amandla okubiza, ukucela ibanga elikude   kuma khasimedne, abathengi noma abasebenzisi abakwelinye izwe   ngokusetshenziswa kwesicucu noma umshini okwazi ukudlulisa noma ukuhambisa   isicelo ukuze athole umsinjwana kuthelefoni ozokwazi ukumenza aphumelele   ukushaya uthelefoni. Uhlelo lokushayela emuva lungagcizelelwa inhlangano   engaphakathi, ucingo lwangaphakathi kude emhlabeni oluqedwayo, oluvalwayo   ngaphambi kokuhlangabezana nezindleko.
capacity:   The number of words or characters that can be held in core memory on a drum   or disc device, magnetic tape, etc. The maximum number of decimal or binary   places that can be contained by a computer.  capacity:   Lokhu kuchaza umgomo, into eneka ishintshe, isikali sento ethile, isimo.   Lokhu kungasho isigejana, inani lamagama, imibhalo enhlobonhlobo engabekwa   noma igcinwe endaweni esemqoka emqondweni othwala ulwazi kwikhompuyutha noma   kungaba isicucu esiyicwecwe esithwala ulwazi ngekhompuyutha noma ibhande   eligcina imininingwane elinomazibuthe kanye nokunye. Umgomo, oyisikalo sezinombolo   zamaqhuzu noma izingxenye noma izindawo ezingafani ezingaba sekhompuyutheni.
capital   resource planning: Decisions   concerning the investment of substantial funds in various aspects of an   organisation, particularly those such as computer systems and equipment,   which are costly and have a long life.  capital   resource planning: Lokhu kuchaza   ukuhlela izimali ezingasiza noma iluphi uhlelo ukuze luqhubeke ngempumelelo.   Izinqumo noma izinyathelo eziphathelene nokulondoloza indathane, isizumbulu   semali ezinhlelweni ezahlukene zenhlangano, ikakhulukazi lezo ezifana   nezinhlelo zamakhompuyutha, kanye namathuluzi, okuyizona ezibizayo futhi   ezihlala isikhathi eside.
carrier:   Any individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, or   corporation engaged in providing telecommunications facilities or services   for hire.  carrier:   Lokhu kungachaza umuntu oyedwa ozimele, imboni, noma inhlangano. Bonke laba   banganosizo olwahlukahlukene abaqashisa ngalo futhi ngezindlela ezahlukene   ukuze bathole inzuzo. Kungaba noma yimuphi umuntu, inhlanganisela,   usoseshini, osozimboni abahlangene noma ukuhlangana ngokuzibophezela   ekuletheni amathuluzi okuxhumana noma imisebenzi engaqashwa.
cartel:   A group of firms that enter into an agreement to set mutually acceptable   prices for their products, often accompanied by output and investment quotas.   The rules of the cartel may be embodied in a formal document, which may be   legally enforceable, and penalties will be laid down for firms which violate   it. The essence of a cartel is that it is a formal system of collusion, as   opposed to a set of informal or tacit agreements to follow certain pricing   policies. Cartels are currently illegal in the United Kingdom, the United   States, and other countries.  cartel:   Lokhu kuchaza iqulu okungaba elosozimboni abenza isivumelwano noma abasayina   isivumelwano esingaphathelana nama nani okungafanele bawabize ngezimpahla   zabo Kungaba futhi iqembu elishushumbisa okungekho emthethweni. Iqulu noma   iqembu lezimboni elingena esivumelwaneni ukuze kuvunyelwane ngamanani angcono   ngezimpahla zabo, lokhu ke kuyaye kuphelekezelwe okukhishiwe kanye nabakali   benani lokulondoloza. Imithetho yaleliqembu ingahlanganiswa noma ifakwe   embhalweni osemqoka noma ohloniphekile, ongaphoqwa ngokusemthethweni ukuthi   ulandelwe kanti futhi zikhona nezijezisi zibekelwe lezozimboni ezeqa   lemithetho. Ubumqoka baleliqembu ukuthi luhlelo oluhloniphekile olubambisene,   okungafani negxenye engahloniphekile noma iqhinga lezivumelwano elilandela   ezinye iziphakamiso ezibiza imali. Amaqembu okwamanje awavumelekile emazweni   phesheya kwezilwandle anjengo United Kingdom, United States kanye namanye   amazwe.
C-band:   The portion of the radio spectrum (Earth to space at 6 GHz; space to Earth at   4 GHz) allocated for satellites providing service between fixed points or   broadcast services.  C-band:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuhambisa izwi emoyeni.  Ingxenye yokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni (ukusuka   ezweni ukuya emoyeni kungu 6 GHZ ukusuka emoyeni kuya ezweni kungu 4 GHZ).   Lokhu kusuke kubekelwe izinhlelo zokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini ama (satellite) abhekene nezidingo phakathi kwezindawo   ezingaphazamisekile noma izidingo zokusakaza.
CD-ROM:   Compact Disc with Read Only Memory; compatible with computers, compact discs   are inexpensive, high-capacity storage devices for data, text and video.  CD-ROM:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwecwecwe noma lwediski oluqukatha izinhlelo zokusenza   kwekhompuyutha futhi lusiza ekufakeni izinhlelo ezithile kukhompuyutha.   Uhlobo lwecwecwe noma idiski elilondoloza okufundwayo kuphela, iyasebenzelana   nekhompuyutha, amacwecwe noma amadiski amancane angabizi, asezingeni   eliphezulu lokugcina ulwazi, okufundwayo kanye nokubonwayo.
CEI: Comparably   Efficient Inter-connection: A regulatory   concept that requires an operating company to provide enhanced services on an   unseparated basis. It must make the network capabilities necessary to the   provision of those services available to unaffiliated entities offering   similar enhanced services. Such network capabilities must be supplied on an   economically and technically “comparably efficient” basis.  CEI: Comparably   Efficient Inter-connection: Lokhukuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumanisa   olusheshayo futhi olongayo. Umqondo wokuhambisa ngomthetho lokho okudingwa   izimboni ezisebenzisa imisebenzi ethuthukisiwe ngendlela engahlukanisiwe.   Kufanele yenze ukuthi kube khona ukudingeka kwamakhono okuxhumana, kulokho   kubhekelwa kwalawo mathuba avulekele nalokho okuzimele okungangene ndawo   okunikeza izidingo ezithuthukisiwe ngokufanayo. Lawo makhono okuxhumana   kufanele abiwe ngendlela yokonga nobuchwepheshe. 
cellular   modem: A modem placed in a portable device   such as a laptop computer, enabling users to communicate through the cellular   network.  cellular   modem: Lokhu kuchaza ikhadi noma uqwembe   olwakhiwe ngobuhlakani olusetshenziselwa ukuxhumana ngohlelo   lomakhalekhukhwini oluhambelana nohlelo lwekhompuyutha ewumahamba nendlwana.   Leli khadi noma uqwembe lufakwa emshinini ongahamba nawo onjenge khompuyutha   ewumahambanendlwana encane ebizwa nge lap-top yona eyenza ukuthi labo   abayisebenzisayo bakwazi ukuxhumana ngendlela yokusebenzisa   umakhalekhukhwini.
cellular   radio: A service having low-power radio   transmitters arranged in a honeycomb pattern to permit re-use of a frequency   many times in a given area, mainly for mobile use, but also in fixed   applications. A terrestrial radio service designed primarily for mobile   applications using microwave transmitters whose low-powered operations enable   frequency re-use and integrated service throughout a region.  cellular   radio: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lomsakazo   olusebenzisa umakhalekhukhwini. Lolu uhlobo lomsakazo oludlulisa amazwi   ngendlela enamandla aphansi. Indlela ehlelwe ngayo ifana nezimbotshana   ezenzelwe ukuba zibuye zisebenze ngendlela yokuphindaphinda izikhathi   eziningi kuleyo ndawo. Loluhlobo lwenzelwe ukuthi kube lula ukulusebenzisa   lapho uhambile, kodwa ke lokhu kungenzeka ezindaweni ezithile   ezingaphazanyiswa yimisebenzi yomsakazo eyakhelwe kakhulu ukusetshenziswa lapho   uhamba usebenzisa indlela ehambisa ngokushesha okutholakala ukuthi ukusebenza   kwamandla ayo aphansi kwenza ukuthi kube nokusebenzisa okuphindaphindayo   nokudidiyelwa ndawonye kwezidingo esigodini sonke.
cellular   service: A radio transmission service that is   suitable for mobile communications.  cellular service:   Lokhu kuchaza usizo noma umsebenzi   kamakhalephaketheni. Umsebenzi wokuthumela ukuxhumana ngomsakazo ofanele   ukuxhumana ngohlelo lukamahamba nendlwana.
Central   Office:   A telecommunications exchange or switching facility. Essentially a telephone   company facility that provides centralised management of switching, routing,   and line transport functions that may traverse other facilities closer to the   end user.    Central   Office: Lokhu kuchaza ihovisi eliphakathi   nendawo. Ihovisi lapho kunohlelo lokushintshwa kwezingcingo. Lemboni   yezingcingo inezigcingo ezibhekene nokuphathwa kokushintshwa okuphakathi   nendawo, ukuthumela izidingo zokuhamba kwemizila yocingo noma yothelefoni   abanganqamula ezinye zezidingo ezisondelene nalabo abazisebenzisa kugcina.
Certification   Authority: A trusted authority that assigns a   unique name to each user and issues a certificate containing the name and the   user’s public key for purposes of security of messaging.  Certification   Authority: Lokhu kuchaza ukuqinisekiswa   kwemvume. Abaphathi abathembekile okuyibona abanikeza igama elihlukile kulowo   oyisebenzisayo ngamunye aphinde anikeze isitifiketi noma incwadi yemvume   ebhalwe igama kanye nokhiye walowo owusebenzisayo ukuze kube nesiqiniseko   sokuvikeleka kombiko.
character   reader: Computer input device that can   directly recognise printed or written characters on paper, without their   first being converted into punched holes or magnetic spots. May operate   optically, electronically, or magnetically.  character reader:   Lokhu kuchaza umshini ofunda okubhaliwe. Umshini wekhompuyutha ongakwazi   ukubona lokho okubhaliwe ephepheni ngaphandle kokuthi kushintshelwe kulokho   okuyizimbotshana noma amacashazi kamazibuthe. Ingasebenza ngendlela kagesi   noma eka mazibuthe.
circuit   switching: Physically linking two or more   points via dedicated circuits.  circuit   switching: Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlanganisa   amapoyinti amabili noma ngaphezulu ngendlela yokusebenzisa ugesi noma   ukuvulelwa kwamandla kagesi ezindaweni lapho uhamba khona.
cladding:   Coating for transparent fibres used in fibre optic transmission which   prevents light from leaking from the fibres.  cladding:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwemboza lezozincingo ezikhanyisayo ezisetshenziselwa   ukwedlulisa izingcingo ezivimbela ukuphuma kokukhanya kuzona lezozincingwana.
co-axial   cable: A telecommunications cable   consisting of an inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation and a sheath.   Commonly called “co-ax”; high-capacity cable used in television distribution,   communications and video to carry great quantities of information.  co-axial   cable: Yikhebula noma intambo ethwala   amandla aletha uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Yikhebula lokuxhumana   elinocingwana ngaphakathi oluvalwe ngalokho okuvimba amandla kagesi, kanye   nalokho okwembozile. Lekhebula ingabuye inqanyulelwe ngokubizwa ngokuthi   yi-“co-ax” eyikhebula elinamandla elisetshenziselwa ukusakazela   umabonakude, ukuxhumana ngohlelo olubonisa izithombe ezinje nge   zebhayisikobho kodwa olusebenza ngethelevishini noma umabonakude okunamandla   okuthwala ulwazi oluningi.
code   conversion: The conversion from one   representation of coded information to another representation of the same   information in another code. An example is the conversion of character signals   or groups of character signals in one telegraph code into corresponding   signals or groups of signals in another code.  code conversion:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushitshwa kohlelo olusebenzisa izinombolo eziyimfihlo.   Ukushintshwa kwemibhalo eyimfihlo ukusuka kulokho okuyimele ishintshelwa   kokunye okumele ulwazi olufanayo. Isibonelo esokushintshwa kwezidingo   zezimpawu ezibonisayo.noma amaqoqo ezidingo zezimpawu zokubonisa noma   ezibonisayo. Lokhu kungenziwa lapho kushintshaniswa khona othelefoni   abayimfihlo. Zishintshelwa ezimpawini noma amasignali afana nawo noma amaqoqo   ezimpawu ezishintshelwa komunye umbhalo oyimfihlo.
Code-Division   Multiple Access (CMDA): A process for   deriving more throughput and accommodating increasing demand for service by   subdividing spectrum into various code sequences.  Code-Division   Multiple Access (CMDA): Lokhu kuchaza uhla   lohlelo lwezinombolo eziyimfihlo ezinokusetshenziswa ngokuphindaphindeka.   Indlela yokuthola inani lezinto ezenziwe ngesikhathi esithile kanye nokusiza   lapho kwanda izidingo zomsebenzi ngokwehlukanisa ukukhanya okuhlukaniswe   yingilazi ukuze kuvele amabala ngokulandelana kwa ma code noma okokufihla   okwahlukene.
collection   rate: The end-user charge for service,   typically set out in a tariff.  collection   rate: Lokhu kuchaza ukuqoqwa kwemali   eyisilinganiso esithile. Inkokhelo eyintela yomsebenzi owenziwe ekugcineni.
co-location:   The physical interconnection of lines and equipment owned and operated by   different carriers typically on the premises of the major incumbent   carrier.  co-location:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhunywa kwemizila ngezandla kanye nama thuluzi aphethwe   nasetshenziswa izithuthi noma izithwali zoqobo ezahlukene ezisezindaweni   ezinkulu zabathuthi noma abathwali ababalulekile.
commercialisation   of space: Eliminating government subsidies and   management so that private ventures can compete fully and fairly in   space-related ventures.  commercialisation   of space: Lokhu kuchaza indawo esiyisizinda   sebhizinisi. Ukuncishiswa kwemixhaso evela kuHulumeni kanye nokuphathwa kwayo   ukuze kuthi lapho abasebenza ngasese bakwazi ukuncintisana ngokuphelele   nakahle kuleyo mizamo yebhizinisi ephathelene nomkhathi.
Committee   on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS):   A committee of the United Nations that addresses issues pertaining to space   exploration, settlement, and orbiting objects, including satellites.  Committee   on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS):   Lokhu kuchaza ikhomishani noma inhlangano ephathelene nokusetshenziswa   kwezinhlelo ezisemkhathini ngokuthula. Ikomiti lenhlangano yezizwe elibhekene   nemininingwane ephathelene nokufunda ngezinto zasemkhathini, izivumelwano   kanye nezinto ezijikelezayo noma uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   okujikelezayo kwemisebe emkhathini.
common   carriage: Regulatory status describing any   service held out to all potential customers indifferently.  common   carriage: Lokhu kuchaza ukuthwala   okujwayelekile noma isikali sokuthwala esijwayelekile. Ukugunyazwa   kwemithetho echaza ngezidingo ezingenza abathengi babambelele yize noma   bengenawo umdlandla.
common   carrier: A legal and regulatory   classification that requires a telecommunications facility or service   provider to serve any user within a certificated geographical region and to   provide service in a non-discriminatory manner, typically through public   tariffs. A carrier that provides telecommunication services to the public at   large and is generally subject to non-discrimination requirements.  common   carrier: Lokhu kuchaza isithuthi noma   isithwali esejwayelekile ekufezeni umsebenzi womphakathi. Ukuhlukaniswa   okuvumelekile nokusemthethweni okufuna izidingo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni   ezingabhekela ukusiza noma ngubani ohlala kuleyondawo abe nesiqiniseko sayo   kanye nokunakekela izidingo ngendlela engabandlululi, ngokukhokha intela   yomphakathi. Isithuthi esibhekene nezidingo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni   emphakathini wonke jikelele kuphinde futhi kuhambelane nezidingo   ezingabandlululi.
Commonwealth   of Independent States (CIS): An affiliation of   sovereign states that formerly comprised the Soviet Union.  Commonwealth   of Independent States (CIS): Lokhu kuchaza   ihlangano yezizwe ezizimele. Inhlangano yamazwe azibusayo ayekade   ngaphambilini ezihlanganise nehlangano yamazwe ase Soviet Union.
communication:   Act of transmitting or making known information by words, letters, books,   documents, speech, or visual aids.  communication:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana.  Umthetho   wokudlulisa noma wokwenza indlela yokuthi ulwazi olwaziwayo lwaziwe   ngamagama, ezincwadini, emiqulwini, ngokukhuluma noma ngokusebenzisa lokho   okungasisiza ukuthi sibone.
Communications   Satellite Act of 1962: The US law that   created Comsat Corporation as the sole signatory to INTELSAT and established   general satellite policy.  Communications   Satellite Act of 1962: Lokhu kuchaza   umthetho wohlelo lokuxhumana ngohlelo oluthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza   emkhathini olwasungulwa ngeminyaka yawo 1962. Umthetho wezwe laphesheya   nezilwandle lase Melika owasungulwa inhlangano ebizwa nge Comsat njengoba   phela kuyiyona eyayinelungelo lokusayina enhlanganweni ebizwa nge INTELSAT,   yaphinda futhi yasungula umthetho wokuxhumana ngohlelo oluthwebulayo   ngokujikeleza kwemisebe emkhathini (satellite).
communications system:   The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically   compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in   unison. The communications system consists of a collection of individual   communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary   stations, and data terminal equipment usually capable of interconnection and   interoperation to form an integrated whole.  communications   system: Lokhu kuchaza izinhlelo zokuxhumana.   Yilezo zingxenye eziphathelene nezinhlelo ezibhekene nezidingo zokuxhumana   ezejwayelekile. Lezizinhlelo ziyahambelana ngobuchwepheshe, zisebenzisa   izindlela ezejwayelekile, ukuvumelana nalokho ekulawulayo kanye   nokuzisebenzisa kanyekanye. Lezizinhlelo zokuxhumana ziqukethe izindlela   eziningi zokuxhumana eziqoqelwe ndawonye, ukuhambisa izinhlelo, ukunikezelana   kwezikhumulo noma kwezikhungo, ilezo zikhungo ezixhuma kulezo ezinkulu,   amathuluzi noma izindawo lapho kugcinwa khona ulwazi, angakwazi ukuxhumanisa   ngaphakathi kanye nokusebenza ngaphakathi ukuze kwakhiwe into eyodwa   ephelele.
comparative   advantage: A fundamental international trade   concept that views nations or regions having the ability to produce certain   goods or services more efficiently than other nations. By emphasising   production where a comparative advantage exists, nations can efficiently use   available natural and human resources and trade for goods and services in   which the nation has a comparative disadvantage.  comparative   advantage: Lokhu kuchaza ukuqhathanisa   okunenzuzo. Umqondo oyisisusa sokuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe, obheka izizwe   noma izigodi ezinekhono lokukhiqiza izimpahla ezithile noma izidingo   ngendlela okuyiyo kunezinye izizwe. Ngokugcizelela imikhiqizo lapho   ukuqhathanisa okunenzuzo kukhona, izizwe ezingakwazi ukusebenzisa umnotho   wendalo ngendlela eyiyo kanye nalokho okuyingcebo kubantu kanye   nokuthengiselana izimpahla kanye nezidingo lapho isizwe sizithola   sesinezinqinamba zokuqhathanisa.
compatibility:   The ability of users and carriers to interconnect equipment, lines, and   facilities while maintaining services with a reasonable degree of reliability   and quality.  compatibility:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhambelana noma ukufanelana. Ikhono labasebenzi nabathuthi   noma abathwali ukuze bakwazi ukuhlanganisa amathuluzi athile, imizila, kanye   nezidingo ngesikhathi lezozidingo uzigcina zisesimweni esiyiso ngokwezinga   elifanele elithembekile kanye neliseqophelweni eliphezulu.
compression:   The application of techniques for reducing the amount of frequency spectrum   or channel capacity needed to derive a circuit. For example, 4 to 1 compression   provides the means for deriving four channels where previously only one   channel was available.  compression:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokunciphisa ngendlela ethile amasu okwenza umsebenzi   wokuthi kwehle izinga lokukhanya okuvamile noma ubukhulu bemizila edingekayo   ukuze kuqalwe ukuhamba kukagesi. Kungaba yincindezelo esuka ku 4 ukuya ku 1   ephathelene nendlela yokuqala imizila emine, kanti kuqala kwakukhona umzila   owodwa.
COMSAT Corporation:   The sole US signatory (investor) in INTELSAT and Inmarsat, which operates as   a “carrier’s carrier” by leasing wholesale satellite capacity to other   carriers for subsequent retailing to end users.  COMSAT Corporation:   Lokhu kuchaza igama lemboni ephathelene nezokuxhumana. Iyona kuphela   enesivumelwano nenye imboni ephathelene nezokuxhumana ebizwa nge INTELSAT   kanye nenye futhi ebizwa nge Inmarsat esebenza njenge sithuthi ngokuboleka   ubukhulu balokho okuningi okuphathelene nohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   okujikelezayo kwemisebe emkhathini (satellite) nezinye izithuthi kwenzelwa   ukuthengiswa.
concentrator:   A switching system that connects a number of inlets to a smaller number of   transmission circuits, thereby allowing a few transmission channels to carry   traffic from many sources. A wide variety of concentrators in used in   telecommunications, including voice concentrators, which take advantage of   the silent periods in telephone conversations to increase the capacity of   submarine cable or satellite systems, and data concentrators, which permit a   common high-speed channel to handle traffic from several low-speed terminals.   In telephone switching, however, the term usually refers to a line   concentrator or to a line or trunk module that can be remotely located from   its host.  concentrator:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthize lokuxhumana. Izinhlelo zokushintshisana   ezixhuma ezimbotshaneni eziningi, ezisuke zixhunyelwa kulezozikhungo   ezidlulisa amandla kagesi. Lokhu kudala ukuthi imizila emibalwa ikwazi   ukuthwala lokho okuminyene okuvela ezindaweni ezihlukene. Izinhlobonhlobo zaloluhlelo   lokushintsha zisetshenziswe ekuxhumaneni ngothelefoni njengo kushintsha   kwezwi okuyaye kusebenzise ithuba lezikhathi ezithile lapho kuxoxwa   ngothelefoni ukuze kwandiswe ubukhulu bamakhebuli noma izintambo ezihamba   ngaphansi komhlaba noma izinhlelo zohlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebula ngemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini i (satellite) kanye nokushintsha kwezinhlelo zolwazi.   Lokhu ke kungavumela ukuthi imigudu ejwayekile ehamba ngesivinini esiphezulu   ikwazi ukumelana nalokho okuminyene okuvela ezindaweni eziyizithwali mandla   ezinesivinini esingesikhulu. Ukushintshana kwezingcingo kungasho   ukushintshana kwemizila noma ingxenye yezingcingo ezisuke zithunyelwa kude   nezisuke zibekwe kude kakhulu kunalapho kuhlala khona abantu abangabhekana   nalezozidingo.
conscious   parallelism: The deliberate matching of prices   and services by carriers to avoid more aggressive competition and price   wars.  conscious   parallelism: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokufanisa   ngamabomu. Indlela yamabomu yokufanisa amanani kanye nezidingo zezithuthi   ezingavimbela ukuthi kubekhona ukuncintisana okungekuhle kanye nokubangwa   kwamanani.
consultation   process: Scheduled meetings of international   carriers and government agencies to evaluate facilities demand and determine   where and when to deploy additional capacity.  consultation   process: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokubonisana.   Kubakhona imihlangano yezithuthi zikazwelonke kanye nezikhungo zamabhizinisi   kaHulumeni ukuze akwazi ukuthola ukuthi lezozidingo zidingeka kangakanani   babuye baphinde babone ukuthi ikuphi lapho benganezezela khona ubukhulu   balezozidingo.
consultative   process: The requirement in Article XIV of   the INTELSAT Agreement and Article VII of the Inmarsat Convention that   parties to these agreements consult with the co-operative to ensure that   another satellite system will not cause technical or economic harm.  consultative   process: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlangana   ngokubonisana.  Esinye sezidingo   zesiqephu esibizwa nge Article XIV okuyisivumelwano senhlangano i INTELSAT   esathathwa emhlanganweni nenhlangano ye Inmarsat eyayizimbandakanye nazo   lezizivumelwano ngokubonisana ngesidingo zamabhizinisi ukuze kube   nesiqiniseko sokuthi ayikho enye indlela yohlelo lokuxhumana (satellite)   eyophinde idale ukuphazamiseka komnotho kanye nobuchwepheshe.
Continental   United States (CONUS): Continental United   States; the lower 48 states.  Continental   United States (CONUS): Lokhu kuchaza   amazwe ahlangene aphesheya kwezilwandle aphakathi nendawo abizwa nge United   States.
convergence:   The “coming together” of formerly distinct technologies, industries or   activities; most common usage refers to the convergence of computing,   communications and broadcasting technologies. The merger of technologies that   previously served discrete markets leading to integrated, additional   offerings; for example, computer terminals will serve entertainment   applications (in addition to information processing) and television sets will   serve information-processing applications (in addition to entertainment).  convergence:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlangana. Uhlelo lokuhlangana ndawonye kobuchwepheshe   obabuhlukile esikhathini esingaphambili, izimboni, ukusetshenziswa   okujwayelekile okubhekiswe ekudidiyelweni kwalokho okuphathelene   nekhompuyutha, ubuchwepheshe bokuxhumana kanye nokusakaza. Ukuhlanganiswa   kobuchwepheshe obukade busebenzisana nezimakethe ezehlukile ezazingaholela   ekutheni zihlanganiswe, ukuze kube khona lokho okunezezelweyo njenge zindawo   zezixhumanisi zezithwali mandla (terminal) zekhompuyutha ezingasiza izicelo   zalokho okuqeda isizungu (ngaphezu kokudluliswa kolwazi) kanye nomabonakude   abasasiza ngezicelo zokwedluliswa kolwazi (ngaphezu kwalokho okuqeda   isizungu).
co-ordination:   The process by which nations, carriers, and other service providers meet to   resolve potential conflicts, including the potential for radio interference.   The INTELSAT Agreement requires nations that have agreed to become parties to   the organisation to demonstrate the absence of technical and economic harm to   INTELSAT when authorising separate satellite systems. The Radio Regulations   of the ITU require nations to co-ordinate the use of frequencies and the   satellite orbital arc.  co-ordination:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlanganyela ngokomsebenzi.  Uhlelo lapho sithola ukuthi izizwe,   izithuthi kanye nezinye izidingo zokusebenza ziyahlangana ukuze kuxazululwe   lokho okungaba namandla okudala uqhekeko, lapho kungabalwa ukugxambukela   kwemisakazo. Isivumelwano senhlangano ebizwa nge INTELSAT esidinga ukuthi   izizwe ezivumelene zizimbandakanye nezinhlangano ezibonakalisa ukungabikhona   kokumosheka kobuchwepheshe kanye nezomnotho we INTELSAT lapho kulawulwa   izinhlelo zama satellite ehlukene. Imithetho yokusakaza ye ITU idinga ukuthi   izizwe zihlanganise ukusebenza ngokuphindaphinda kanye noma ngemizila   epholisheke kahle yokuzungeza okuyindilinga yohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   kwemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini.
corporatisation:   The conversion of a government-owned carrier into a more businesslike   enterprise, with or without a change in ownership.    corporatisation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushintshwa kokuphathwa kwamabhizinisi. Uhlelo lokushintshwa   kwalezozithuthi ebezikade zenganyelwe nguHulumeni esezishintshelwe ekubeni   zibe ngamabhizinisi amancane. Lokhu kungenzeka ngokushintshwa noma   ukungashintshwa kwalabo abasuke bezowangamela.
cost   and benefits: The costs (that is, detriments) and   benefits of an information service are the unfavourable and favourable   comparisons of a service and the alternatives to the service, in terms of   differences in input, output, performance, and effectiveness. For example,   the value added by a given service, over that of an alternative to the   service, could consist of a lower cost and/or a superior performance. The   alternatives to the service might consist of the clients performing the work   themselves or engaging a consultant or outside company to perform the   work.  cost   and benefits: Lokhu kuchaza izindleko kanye   namalungelo. Uhlelo lwezindleko kanye namalungelo ezidingo zolwazi lapho   sithola ukuthi kuba khona ukuqhathaniswa okungavumelani kanye nokuvumelana   nazo lezozidingo kanye nezinye izindlela ezingasetshenziswa zalezozidingo.   Lokhu kungenziwa ngokubheka umehluko phakathi kwalokho okuwulwazi olufakwe   kwikhompuyutha nalokho okuhlelayo kuphinde kukhiqize ulwazi, ukukwazi ukwenza   okuthile kanye nokusebenza ngendlela eyimpumelelo. Isibonelo kungaba yinani   elenezelwe, izidingo ngaphezu kwalezo zidingo ezingasetshenziswa ngenye   indlela. Lezo-ke eziphathelene namanani aphansi kanye nokwenza okungaba   seqophelweni eliphezulu. Ezinye izindlela zokusetshenziswa kwalezizidingo   zingaphathelana nabathengi abazenzelayo umsebenzi noma-ke baqashe umuntu   oqeqeshelwe ukwenza lowomsebenzi noma kubizwe izinkampani zangaphandle   ezingafike ziwenze lowomsebenzi.
cost   finding: A less formal method than cost accounting   to determine costs, using available financial data and recasting and   adjusting it to derive the cost data needed.  cost finding:   Lokhu kuchaza ukutholakala   kwezindleko. Indlela ehlonipheke kancane yokwenza into ethile kunendlela   yohlelo lokugcinwa noma ukubalwa kwezimali ukuze kwazeke izindleko, lapho ke   kusetshenziswa uhlelo olukhona oluqoqwe ngekhompuyutha oluphathelene   nezinhlelo zezimali kanye nokuphinda ukhethe kanye nokugudluza loluhlelo   ukuze kufinyelelwe ezindlekweni ezidingekayo ohlelweni lolwazi oluqoqwe   ngekhompuyutha.
cost:   Cost usually associated with the amount of resources or services applied (or   devoted) to activities, services, etc. For example, using staff to perform an   activity incurs the costs of staff time applied to the activity. The amount   of resource can be converted to funds. Since funds or money is a financial   resource, an expenditure is the application of funds or money for purchasing   (or employing) resources.  cost:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko. Lokhu kumayelana nezindleko eziphathelene namanani   ezimali ezikhona kumbe izidingo ezisetshenziswayo kuleyomicimbi esuke   yenziwa. Lokho-ke kungasho izindleko ezingadaleka lapho kubhekwa isikhathi   esisetshenziswe ngabasebenzi ngenkathi benza leyomisebenzi. Inani lalokho   okuwumcebo lingashintshwa libe yimali. Kuyaye kuthi lapho sekufanele ukuthi   kusetshenziswe imali lapho kuthengwa lokho okungaba wumcebo.
cost-based   pricing: The general principle of charging   for services in relation to the cost of providing these services.  cost-based   pricing: Lokhu kuchaza izidingo eziphathelene   nezindleko. Umthetho ojwayelekile osetshenziswayo lapho kukhokhelwa izidingo   eziphathelene nezindleko ezisetshenziselwa zona lezozidingo.
cream   skimming: Refers to the concern of traditional   carriers, policy makers, or regulators that competitors without social   obligations may choose to compete in only the lucrative market (where tariffs   have generally been kept well above cost) and will thereby reduce the income   which the traditional carrier would normally have used to meet its social   obligations, such as providing services in remote high-cost areas.  cream   skimming: Ukususwa kwemithetho ethile.  Lokhu kungabhekiswa kulezozithuthi   ebezivele zikhona, abenzi bemithetho, ababheke imithetho yokuthi labo abancintisanayo   ngaphandle kwemithetho yomphakathi ebaphoqayo bakwazi ukuncintisana   kulezozimakethe eziseqophelweni eliphezulu, lapho uthola ukuthi intela   yakhona ibiza kakhulu kunezinye izimakethe. Lokhu-ke kungayehlisa imali   engenile lapho othola ukuthi lezozithuthi ezikhona zingayisebenzisa ukuze   zihlangabezane nalokho okuyimigomo yomphakathi njengokubhekela izidingo   zaleyomiphakathi esezindaweni eziqhelile kwabanye abantu futhi othola ukuthi   yonke into iyabiza khona.
cross-bar   exchange: A common control electro-mechanical   analogue switching system.  cross-bar   exchange: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokushintsha   olusebenzisa indlela engaphezu kweyodwa. Yindlela ejwayelekile yohlelo   lokushintsha olungasebenzisa indlela kagesi kanye neyokukhenika ngendlela ye   “analog”.
cross-certification:   Occurs when a corporation that is legally certified to provide products and   services in one industry or marketplace is also certified as a legitimate or   legal entity to provide products or services in another industry.  cross-certification:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuba nelungelo ezimbonini ezingaphezu kweyodwa.  Lokhu kungenzeka lapho uthola ukuthi   inkampani ethile isebenza ngokusemthethweni ukuze ibhekele izidingo kanye   nempahla embonini eyodwa noma lapho kuthengwa khona. Lenkampani futhi   iyanikezwa igunya elisemthethweni lokuthi ibhekele impahla kanye nezidingo   zakwezinye izimboni.
cross-ownership:   Refers to the practice of one corporation exercising partial or complete   control of the operation of another industry through purchase or ownership of   the stock in the latter corporation.  cross-ownership:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuphatha izinkampani eziningi. Lokhu kubhekiswe   kulokho okwenziwa yimboni eyodwa ukuthi ibe nelungelo lokwengamela ezinye   izimboni ngendlela ephelele noma engaphelele. Lokhu bangakwenza ngokuthi   bathenge noma bathathe konke okusuke kungokwaleyo mboni abasuke bekade   beyiphethe.
cross-subsidisation:   Refers to the practice of applying revenues from an operation or line of   business to another operation to lower the price of the latter operation; for   example, local telephone rates have remained low because they were subsidised   by long distance revenue. This is the practice of using surplus revenues   (profit) generated from one product or service to support another, typically   associated with to subsidisation of competitive services with revenues from   monopoly services.  In more formal   terms, it means using revenues accrued from one service to underwrite the   provision of another service at less than fully compensatory rates.  cross-subsidisation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukukhokhela abathile ngezimali zabanye. Lokhu kubhekiswe   ekusetshenzisweni kwentela esuke ikhokhwe abanye ihanjiswa kwezinye izindawo   ukuze kwehle izindleko zalabo abanye abakhokhelwe. Isibonelo salokhu kungaba   intela ephansi ekhokhelwa ukusetshenziswa kwezingcingo zangaphakathi ngenxa   yokuthi zikhokhelwa ngemali etholakalayo lapho kusetshenziswe izingcingo   eziya ezindaweni ezikude. Lokhu kuyindlela yokusetshenziswa kwenzuzo   etholakale yabaningi ngempahla eyodwa noma izidingo ezingasetshenziswa   ukwelekela ezinye. Lokhu kungafaniswa nokukhokhelwa kwezidingo   ezincintisanayo, zibe zikhokhelwa ngemali etholakala kulezozidingo eziphethwe   ngabathile. Lokhu kungasho ukusetshenziswa kwemali etholakale kwenye indawo ukuze   kukhokhelwe izidingo zabanye ngokukhokha intela eyisinxephezelo.
crytographic   algorithm: Also called a cipher, this is the   mathematical function used for encoding and decoding a message.  crytographic   algorithm: Lokhu kuchaza okuphathelene nemfihlo.   Lokhu kungasho imfihlo, lena indlela yokusetshenziswa kwezibalo ukuze   kufihlwe imiyalezo ethile kanye nokuhunyushwa kwaleyo miyalezo.
CTO: Commonwealth   Telecommu-nication Organisation: an   inter-governmental collaborative organisation of twenty eight Commonwealth   countries, which promotes the efficient exploitation and development of the   Commonwealth’s external telecommunications system through consultation and   collaboration on all aspects of Commonwealth international telecommunications   policies and practices.  CTO: Commonwealth   Telecommunication Organisation: Lokhu   kuchaza inhlangano yezizwe ephethe ezokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Inhlangano   ehlanganise amazwe angamashumi amabili nesishagalombili ezizwe ezihlangeneyo.   Lenhlangano iyona eyenza imisebenzi enjengama project angaphakathi   kuHulumeni. Iphathelene nokuthuthukiswa nokwenziwa kahle kwemisebenzi kanye   nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zangaphandle zokuxhumana ngezingcingo yezizwe   ezihlangeneyo. Lokhu ke kwenziwa ngokubonisana kahle nokwenziwa ndawonye kwemisebenzi   ngazozonke izindlela ezifanele zezizwe ezihlangeneyo kanye nemithetho   yezokuxhumana ngothelefoni.
cyberspace:   The three-dimensional expanse of computer networks in which all audio and   video electronic signals travel and users can, with the proper addresses and   codes, explore and download information.  cyberspace:   Lokhu kuchaza inhlanginisela yezindlela zokuxhumana ngekhompuyutha eyakhiwe   yaba nkulu yaphinde yama njengo nxantathu. Konke lokho esikuzwayo   nesikubonayo ngokusebenzisa izimpawu noma amasignal kagesi kuhamba   ngezindlela ezifanele kanye nezinombolo ezingasetshenziswa lapho kuhlolwa   kubuye kufunwe ulwazi olungatholakala kwikhompuyutha.
Cybraries:   On-line libraries.  Cybraries:   Lokhu kuchaza lezo zikhungo zolwazi ezihlale zilindile, zivulekile ukuze   sikwazi ukuthola ulwazi kuzona.

 

D
 
Data   Network Identification Codes (DNIC):   ITU-recognised coding system for identifying and routing traffic to specific   network operators.  Data   Network Identification Codes (DNIC):   Lokhu kuchaza ukubona noma ukwazi ukubona uhlelo lwendlela yokuxhumana   yohlelo olusebenza ngezinombolo. Uhlelo oluvumelekile oluyimfihlo   olusetshenziswayo lapho nifuna ukuthola kanye nokuthumela ulwazi oluthile   kulabo abathile abasebenzisa izinhlelo zokuxhumana.
Data   Over Voice/Data Under Voice (DOV/DUV):   A technique for transmitting voice and data over a single channel through   multiplexing or other signal splitting technology.  Data   Over Voice/Data Under Voice (DOV/DUV):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lukuthunyelwa kolwazi ngendlela yokusebenzisa iphimbo.   Isu lokuhanjiswa kwezwi kanye nolwazi ngokusebenzisa umzila owodwa ngendlela   eyinxakanxaka noma amanye amasignal noma izimpawu zokuhlukanisa   ubuchwepheshe.
debt   financing: The long-term borrowing of money by   a business, usually in exchange for debt securities or a note, to obtain   working capital or other funds necessary for investment or operations or to   retire other indebtedness.  debt   financing: Lokhu kuchaza ukukhokhwa   kwezikweletu. Lokhu kuphathelene nokubolekwa kwemali ibhizinisi okuthatha   isikhathi eside. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokuthi kube nokushintshisana okungaba   isibambiso sesikweletu noma ezinye izimali ezidingekayo lapho kulolondolozwa   imali noma amabhizinisi noma ukushiya ezinye izikweletu.
decode:   To convert data by reversing the effect of previous encoding. It could   include interpreting a code or converting encoded text into equivalent plain   text by means of a code. In broadcasting/telecommunications, decoding does   not include deriving plain text by cryptanalysis.  decode:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushintsha lokho obekubhalwe kwaba yimfihlo, kube umbhalo   obonakalayo noma ozwakalayo. Uhlelo lokushitsha ulwazi ngokubuyisela emuva   ushintsho lokufihlwa kolwazi ngaphambilini. Lokhu kungasho ukuhumusha lokho   okufihliwe noma ukushintsha imibhalo efihlakele ifane naleyo mibhalo esobala   ngendlela yokusebenzisa indlela yokufihla. Uma kusakazwa noma kuxhunyanwa   ngothelefoni ukushintshela emibhalweni esobala akufaki ukutholakala   kwemibhalo esobala ngendlela yocwaningo olucashile noma olufihlakele.
dedicated:   Reserved for the use of one or more specified users. For example, a private   line or satellite transponder may be dedicated for use by a particular   lessee.  Non-dedicated capacity is   provided on a virtual or on-demand basis.  dedicated:   Ukwahlukaniselwa noma ukwabelwa.    Okubekelwe ukusetshenziswa ngoyedwa kumbe labo abaningana abanelungelo   lokukusebenzisa. Isibonelo kungaba ulayini osetshenziswa ngasese, noma   “isatellite transponder” ingavumeleka ukuba isetshenziswe yilowo   obolekile. Isimo sokunganikezelwa singabhekelwa ngendlela eyiqiniso noma leyo   ehlalwe ifunwa.
Demand   Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA): A queuing   method by which a larger number of users may share transmission capacity by   allocating on an as-needed basis.    Demand   Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA): Ukusebenzisa   umgudu wezokuxhumana owodwa kweminingi. Yindlela yokulinda lapho uthola   ukuthi abasebenzisi bezokuxhumana abaningi basebenzisa umgudu owodwa kuye -ke   nangobukhulu balowomgudu. Lokho-ke kungenzeka ngokuthi kubhekwe izidingo   ngqangi zabo.
demultiplexing:   The separation of two or more channels previously multiplexed; i.e.   the reverse of multiplexing.  demultiplexing:   Lokhu-kuchaza ukwehlukanisa imigudu yezokuxhumana. Ukwehlukaniswa kwemigudu   emibili noma engaphezulu kwalokho ebikade ngaphambilini iyinxakanxaka, lokhu   kungaba ukubuyiselwa emuva kwalokho okuyinxakanxaka.
depreciation:   A method of allocating the cost of an asset to the particular time period for   which cost analysis is performed.  depreciation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwehla kwenani lento ethile. Yindlela yokunikezela izindleko   zalokho okuyimpahla engathi lapho idayiswa kutholakale imali. Lempahla-ke   inganikezwa isikhathi esithile lapho kusabhekisiswa izindleko zayo.
deregulation:   Removal of a regulation or regulations governing a telecommunications service   or provider. The deregulated service or provider is principally subject to   the dictates of the marketplace; it no longer has any guarantee that costs   will be recovered or any profit earned.    Costs of a deregulated service cannot be covered by profits from   regulated operations.  Profits from a   deregulated service are usually not included in the calculations when   figuring the appropriate profit margin to be allowed on a firm’s regulated   operations.  deregulation:   Uhlelo lokususwa komthetho.  Wukususwa   komthetho noma imithetho eyengamele izidingo zokuxhumana ngocingo. Izidingo   ezisuke zingasenawo umthetho ezisuke sezincike kakhulu ekusebenzeni   kwezimakethe. Sisuke singasekho isiqiniseko sokuthi izindleko noma inzuzo   ingabuye itholakale. Izindleko zezidingo ezingasekho emthethweni akufanele   zithathwe kuleyonzuzo yalezozidingo ezisuke zisenomthetho. Inzuzo etholakele   kulezozidingo ezingasenamthetho, njengenjwayelo azibe zisabalwa lapho   sekubhekwa inzuzo efanele esuke ingavunyelwe yimithetho esebenzayo   kuleyomboni.
destructive   competition: Short-term price competition at   non-compensatory levels resulting in market exit by some enterprises and the   potential for survivors to raise rates above competitive levels to recoup   prior losses.  destructive competition:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuncintisana okungenambuyiselo. Ukuncitisana ngamanani   okuthatha isikhathi esifushane kanti futhi kusuke kungenankokhelo. Lokhu ke   kunga holela ekutheni amanye amabhizinisi aphume ezimakethe, bese kuthi labo   abakwazile ukusimama benyuse intela ngezinga eliphezulu kakhulu ukuze bakwazi   ukuthola imbuyiselo yalezozindleko ebesezilahlekile.
Developing   Countries: A broad range of countries that   generally lack a high degree of industrialisation, infrastructure, and other   capital investment or advanced living standards among their populations as a   whole. The poorest of such countries are referred as the least developed   countries.  Developing   Countries: Lokhu kuchaza amazwe asathuthuka.   Kungashiwo amazwe amaningi asuke engakabi sezingeni eliphezulu kwezezimboni,   ingqalasizinda, kanye nokunye okuphathelene nokulondolozwa kwezimali noma   izinga eliseqophelweni eliphezulu lempilo kubantu abahlala khona jikelele.   Amazwe ahlupheka kakhulu kunamanye abizwa ngokuthi wona angamazwe   asathuthukiswe kancane.
Digital   Audio Broadcasting (DAB): The transmission   of audio signals in a higher quality digital format rather than the   conventional analogue method.  Digital   Audio Broadcasting (DAB): Lokhu kuchaza ukusakaza   ngohlelo olusebenzisa izinombolo. Ukwedluliswa kwezimpawu noma amasignals   alalelwayo ngokusezingeni eliphezulu lohlelo lokusebenzisa izinombolo lapho   kuxhunyuwana, kunokuthi kusetshenziswe indlela yakudala engasebenzisi   izinombolo (analogue).
Digital   European Cordless Telephone (DECT): A   European standard for a new generation of cordless telephones and wireless   private branch exchange.  Digital   European Cordless Telephone (DECT):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngezingcingo noma othelefoni abangaxhunywe   ndawo noma abangenazintambo bamazwe aphesheya kwezilwandle e Yurophu.  Izinga lezwe laphesheya kwezilwandle   elibizwa nge Yurophu lomkhiqizo omusha wezingcingo ezingenantambo kanye   nokungasetshenziswa kwezintambo kulezo zikhungo zangasese zokushintshisana   kwezingcingo noma othelefoni.
digital   exchange (digital switch): An electronic   switching system using logic circuits that handle digital signals without   converting them into analogue form.  digital   exchange (digital switch): Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo   esisebenzisa uhlelo lokushintshana lwezinombolo. Uhlelo lokushintsha   olusebenzisa amandla kagesi. Lapho ke kusuke kusetshenziswe ukulandelanisa   kahle lezo zikhungo zikagesi eziphatha izimpawu noma amasignal asebenzisa   uhlelo lwezinombolo ngale kokuthi zishintshelwe esimweni esidala sendlela   esebenzisa i analog.
digital frequency modulation:   The transmission of digital data by frequency modulation of a carrier, as in   binary frequency-shift keying.  digital   frequency modulation: Lokhu kuchaza   ukudlulisa amazwi ngohlelo lwezinombolo. Ukwedluliswa kolwazi ngokusebenzisa   izinombolo ezisakazwa njengezithuthi. Lokhu kusafana nokusebenzisa izinombolo   ngokuphindaphinda lapho kudluliswa okuthile ngokucindezela inkinobho.
digital multiplexer:   A device for combining several digital signals into an aggregate bit stream.   Digital multiplexing may be implemented by interleaving bits, in rotation,   from several digital bit streams either with or without the addition of extra   framing, control, or error detection bits.  digital   multiplexer: Lokhu kuchaza okwenziwe ngobuhlakani   bobuchwepheshe futhi okusebenzisa uhlelo lwezinombolo. Isicucu noma umshini   wokuhlanganisa isibalo esithize sezikhombisi noma izibonisi ngohlelo   lwezinombolo ekubeni isamba esisemthethweni noma esivumelekile sokuhamba   kwesigqi. Ukusebenzisa lokhu okwenziwe ngobuhlakani bobuchwepheshe futhi   okusebenzisa uhlelo lwezinombolo (digital multiplexing) kungaqalwa noma   kufakwe izigqi ezishiyayo ngengaphakathi, ekuphendukeni noma ekujikelezeni,   ekuhambeni kwezigqi zezinombolo ezahlukahlukene okungenzeka noma kungenzeki   ukuthi zibe nenhlanganisela engaphezulu noma ethe xaxa yokuhlukanisa   (framing), ukulawula, noma ukuthola isigqi samaphutha.
digital   radio: Microwave transmission of digital   data via radio transmitters or radio broadcasting using a digital   signal.  digital radio:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lomsakazo olusebenza ngezinombolo. Ukuthumela ngemisebe   yohlelo olusebenzisa izinombolo oluqukatha izinhlelo ezahlukahlukene   olusebenza ngekhompuyutha (digital data) ekudluliseni izithumeli zomsakazo   noma ukusakaza ngomsakazo okusebenzisa okukhombisa zinombolo.
digital   scanner: A device that allows users to   monitor radio-communication frequencies automatically.  digital   scanner: Lokhu kuchaza umshini noma uhlelo   lokuxhumana ngokuthi lukwazi ukufunda izinombolo ezimele igama noma inani   lento ethize. Isicucu noma umshini ovumela umsebenzisi ukuthi akwazi ukubuka   ngokuqapha ukuphindaphinda kokuxhumana ngomsakazo okwenzeka ngokuzi   shintshashintsha.
digital   signature: Data appended to a part of a message   that enable a recipient to verify the integrity and origin of a message.  digital   signature: Lokhu kuchaza ukuba nendlela engaba   imfihlo ekuthumeleni imiyalezo kumuntu noma ekuxhumaneni nomuntu othile futhi   okungaba uyena yedwa ongaba sesimweni sokukwazi ukuthi lomyalezo uqhamuka   kubani futhi owaziswa ngaloluhlelo. Uhlelo oluqukethe izinhlelo, kanye   nokunye okusemqoka okusebenza ngekhompuyutha okuxhunywe engxenyeni yomlayezo   lokho okwenza ukuthi umemukeli akwazi ukubheka ukuthembeka, nobuqotho kanye   nalapho kuvela khona umyalezo.
Digital   Termination Systems (DTS): Digital microwave   transmission systems that provide a bypass alternative to conventional local   exchange carrier wireline facilities.  Digital Termination Systems (DTS):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuqeda izinombolo. Ukuthumela ngemisebe yohlelo   lwezinombolo okuletha enye indlela yokuxhuma eceleni ekuhlanganeni   kwesishintshanisi esithwala izinto zemigudu yezintambo yasekhaya noma ezweni.
digital   transmission systems: A transmission   system in which information is transmitted in a series of pulses and in which   the signals can be regenerated.  digital   transmission systems: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuthumela ngokwezinombolo. Uhlelo lokuthumela lapho kuthunyelwa   khona ulwazi noma umyalezo ngezigqi eziningi kanye nalapho izikhombisi,   izibonisi zingaphinda zakheke.
digital:   Information expressed in binary patterns of ones and zeros. The use of a   binary form, composed of on and off pulses to represent the continuously   varying signals of images and sounds. Information, entertainment, voice   traffic, and other forms of communication can be encoded, stored, processed,   and transmitted in a numeric as opposed to analogue form.  digital:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile oluyizinombolo. Ulwazi noma imiyalezo echazwe   ngendlela emfushane yezinhlobo zezinombolo njengo (1) kanye no (0).   Ukusetshenziswa kohlobo lwendlela emfushane, ehlangene nokuvula (ON) kanye   nokuvala (OFF) kwezigqi ukuze kumele izibonisi noma izimpawu eziqhubekayo   futhi ezingafani zemifaniso kanye nemisindo. Ulwazi, injabulo, ubuningi   bezwi, nezinye izindlela zokuxhumana zingacashiswa, zigcinwe, zisetshenziswe,   kanye nokuthi zingathunyelwa ngohlelo lwezinombolo kuna lokho okuphikisayo   kohlelo lwesisindo samandla kagesi.
digitisation:   The conversion of an analogue or continuous signal into a series of ones and   zeros, i.e., into a digital format.    This signifies the use of computer-readable bit streams for   transmitting, switching and routing information.  digitisation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushintshela ohlelweni olusebenza ngezinombolo. Ukushintshwa   kohlelo olusebenzisa isithwali mandla kagesi noma isibonisi esiqhubekayo   ukuze sibe yizinhlobonhlobo noma inqwaba yo (1 one) kanye no (0 zeros)   okungekho noma unothi (isibonelo) kube sohlelweni lwezinombolo (digital   format). Lokhu kuchaza ukusetshenziswa ukufundeka kokuhamha kwezigqi   zekhompuyutha ekuthunyelweni, ekushintshaniseni kanye nase kuqondiseni   ulwazi.
direct   access: The opportunity for end users and   service providers to acquire satellite capacity directly from the operator,   such as INTELSAT and EUTELSAT, instead of having to deal with an   intermediary.  direct   access: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo loku phumelela   ukuzingenela wena ngale kokuthi uze usizwe omunye umuntu.  Ithuba labasebenzisi kamuva kanye nalabo   abaletha imisebenzi noma usizo, ukuxhumana ukuze kutholakale isimo sohlelo   sokuxhumana noma sokuthumela esihamba emkhathini futhi esimukela ngomoya   okuphuma ngqo kumxhumanisi, kungaba uhlelo olufana ne INTELSAT kanye ne   EUTELSAT, esikhundleni sokuba sisebenzise isixhumanisi.
direct   broadcast satellite: The use of a   satellite to transmit programming, including audio and video, directly to end   users equipped with receiving dishes and the necessary electronic components   (also known as direct-to-home broadcasting).      direct   broadcast satellite: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo oluqonde nqgo lokusakaza ngohlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebula ngemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini (satellite). Ukusetshenziswa kwaloluhlelo lokuxhumana   noma ukuthumela okuhamba emkhathini ngomoya (satellite), ekuthumeleni noma   ekudluliseni izinhlelo, lokhu kuhlanganisa lokho okuthwala izwi (audio)   umshini obonisa izithombe zebhayisikobho (video) ngqo kubasebenzisi kamuva   abahlome noma aba nezindishi ezithwebulayo ngokuthatha kanye nezinhla noma   izicucu ezisemqoka ezisebenza ngogesi noma umbani (okwaziwa njengo kuqonde   ngqo ekhaya ngokusakaza).
distance   education: Education using different media such   as correspondence, radio and television, but requiring little or no physical   attendance at the institution offering the courses and accredited   certification.  distance education:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokufunda ngezindlela ezahlukene kungaba ukufunda   izincwadi ezithunyelwe ngeposi, uhlelo olusakazwa kuthelevishini noma   kumabonakude kanye nezinye izindlela.    Imfundo ekusebenziseni izindlela ezingafani zokuthola ulwazi nezindaba   ezifana nezincwadi ezithunyelwayo, ngokomsakazo, ngokuka mabonakude lokhu   kungadinga kancane noma ngeke kudinge uzekhona futhi uthinte lapha nalapha   emagcekeni nasezakhiweni zemfundo eziletha izifundo kanye nezitifiketi   ezisemthethweni.
distance learning/teletraining:   Training in which usually live instruction is conveyed in real time via   telecommunications facilities, on a point-to-point basis or on a   point-to-multipoint basis. It can have many forms, such as teleseminars,   teleconferencing, or even an electronic classroom which includes both audio   and video.   distance   learning/teletraining: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokufunda ngebanga elikude kungaba ngocingo. Ukuvivinya lapho   kujwayele ukushiya iziphakamiso kuyadluliswa esikhathini sangempela kudlule   izinto noma izindawo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni, ezingeni ngokwezindawo lapho   zihlangana khona noma ngesimo noma lapho kuhlangana khona umzila owodwa kanye   neminye. Ingaba nezindlela eziningi njengokuxhumana ngothelefoni   ngokomhlangano wesifundo esithile, ngokomhlangano, nangokwemfundo yasegunjini   yohlelo lwemfundo ngokukagesi okungahlanganisa kokubili njenge sithwali sezwi   kanye nesibonisi zithombe zebhayisikobho esisebenza ngomabonakude.
divestiture:   Severing part of a corporation and creating a separate business entity on a   voluntary basis or as part of an antitrust settlement or verdict, i.e. the   break-up of AT&T, mandated by a federal court on the basis of a Consent   Decree between AT&T and the US Department of Justice that settled the   antitrust suit against AT&T.  divestiture:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlukaniswa kwezinto. Ukuhlukaniswa kwengxenye yemboni enkulu   kanye nokudala noma ukwakha ibhizinisi elihlukene elizimele ngesimo   sokuzinikela noma ekubeni ingxenye ekubangiseni ngokuncintisana   okukhululekile noma ingayiphi indlela yesivumelwano noma isinqumo (isibonelo)   ukuhlukaniswa kwenkampani noma imboni yokuxhumana ebizwa nge AT&T,   ekhethwe inkantolo yezizwe ngezizwe okuncike esinqumweni somthetho phakathi   kwemboni i AT&T kanye nomnyango wezomthetho waseMelika olungisa   ukungathembani ngecala lokuhlawulisa imboni yezokuxhumana i AT&T.
division   of revenues: The allocation of the revenues from   jointly-used facilities among various kinds of traffic (such as toll and   local) and among the entities serving that traffic.    division of revenues:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlukaniswa kwezintela. Ukunikezelwa kwezintela   ezimpahleni noma ezintweni ezisetshenziswa ngokuhlanganyela phakathi   kwezinhlobo ezahlukene zokuningi okuhamba ngamasondo (okufana nesamba   esikhokhwayo ukuze ukwazi ukusebenzisa umgwaqo noma ibhuluho elithile kanye   nokwalapha ngaphakathi ekhaya noma ezweni lakithi) kanye naphakathi   kwabazimele ekuphakeleni lokho okuningi okuhamba ngamasondo.
dominant   carrier: A regulatory classification for the   telecommunications provider that has the predominant market share or is   otherwise able to exercise market power. The classification of common   carriers who because of their market power require closer regulatory   scrutiny.  Such carriers have less   flexibility to change tariff terms and conditions.  The classification applies to AT&T,   foreign-owned carriers on a route-specified basis, Comsat in its INTELSAT and   Inmarsat signatory functions, and carriers operating the only Earth station   in an off-shore point (e.g. Guam).  dominant carrier:   Lokhu kuchaza isithwali esisematheni noma esidlula ezinye. Ekulawulweni   kokuhlukaniswe ngokuchaza komlethi noma umsizi ngokuxhumana ngothelefoni lowo   onokuba semqoka noma okubonakala kangcono kunokunye ezimakethe zezabelo noma
ngale kwalokho okungaphumelela ukusebenzisa amandla emakethe noma   ekuthengiseni. Ukuchaza ngokuhlukanisa kwabathwali abajwayelekile labo okuthi   ngenxa yamandla ezimakethe badinge ukubhekisiswa okusondele kokulawula. Labo   bathwali bano kukhululeka noma ukunyakaza okuncane kokushintsha izivumelwano   zentela kanye nezimo. Ukuhlukanisa ngokuchaza okuphoqa noma okuphathelene   nemboni yakwa AT&T yabathwali bakwa manye amazwe abasendleleni   ephathelene nokusemqoka noma kwekhethelo, inhlangano noma iqembu elibizwa nge   Comsat ohlelweni lwayo lwe INTELSAT kanye ne Inmarsat signatory (inhlangano   evunyelwe ukusayina) kanye nezithwali ezixhuma isikhungo, isikhumulo somhlaba   okuyisona kuphela esise ndaweni ethile phesheya kwezilwandle (isibonelo)   ngendawo ethile ebizwa nge Guam.
downlink:   The transmission of traffic from a satellite to receiving locations.  downlink:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumanisa ngokubhekisa phansi. Ukuthunyelwa kokuningi   okusuka ohlelweni lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini   ngomoya (satellite) kuyiswa noma kuthunyelwa ezindaweni eziningi ezimukelayo.
DP:   Distribution point: connecting point between subscriber lines and a   cable.  DP: Lokhu kuchaza   indawo lapho kusatshalaliswa khona.    Indawo exhumanisayo phakathi komzila noma umgudu womsebenzisi oxhasayo   futhi osemthethweni, kanye nentambo.
DTH: Direct-To-Home:   TV signal broadcast by satellite received directly in a subscriber’s home via   a small dish antenna.  DHT: Direct-To-Home:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuqonda ngqo ekhaya. Izimpawu zokumukela zikamabonakude   ezisakazwa isithwebuli sohlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza   emkhathini futhi oluhamba ngomoya (satellite) okutholaka ngqo ekhaya   lomsebenzisi oxhasayo futhi osemthethweni ekudluleni endishini eyisimukeli   (antenna).
duopoly:   The market situation in which there are only two sellers of a particular good   or service; essentially a monopoly shared by two enterprises.  duopoly:   Lokhu kuchaza isimo semakethe lapho kukhona abadayisi bempahla ethile noma   usizo, okusemqoka futhi okulawulwe konke ngokuhlukaniselana phakathi   kwezimboni noma amabhizinisi amabili.

 

E
 
E-1: A   European standard for transmission capacity handling 2.048 Mbps.  E-1:   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele izinga lokuthumela lezwe laphesheya nezilwandle e   Yurophu. Izinga lesisindo noma lokuphumelela ukuthumela okukwazi ukuthwala   isikali sokuthumela esingu 2.048 Mbps.
Earth   station: Terrestrial equipment used to   transmit and receive satellite telecommunications. Some Earth stations   provide receive-only functions.    Earth   station: Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele isikhungo   noma isikhumulo somhlaba noma esisemhlabeni. Amathuluzi afana nezindingilizi   ezisemkhathini ezitholakala emkhathini ezisetshenziswa ekuthumeleni   nasekumukeleni ukuxhumana ngothelefoni ngohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   ngemisebe olusemkhathini futhi olusebenza ngomoya (satellite) Ezinye   izikhungo noma izikhumulo zasemhlabeni zikwazi ukuletha imisebenzi yokumukela   kuphela.
Earth terminal:   One of the non-orbiting communications stations in a satellite link that   receives, processes, and transmits signals between itself and a satellite.   These satellite Earth terminals may be at mobile, fixed, airborne, and   waterborne locations.  Earth   terminal: Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele indawo   lana emhlabeni lapho kunesixhumanisi khona noma isixhumanisi sasemhlabeni.   Esinye sezikhungo noma sezikhumulo sokuxhumana esingashayi indingilizi noma   esingajikelezi ekuxhumaniseni ngohlelo lokuthwebula ngokusebenzisa imisebe   ejikelezayo olusemkhathini olusebenza ngomoya (satellite) olukwazi ukumukela,   ukudlulisela, kanye nokuthumela izimpawu phakathi kwayo i (satellite link)   kanye nohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikelezayo olusemkhathini   olusebenza ngomoya (satellite). Lezizindawo zasemhlabeni zohlelo lokuxhumana   ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikelezayo olusemkhathini olusebenza ngomoya   (satellite) zingaba sezindaweni ezihambayo, ezinganyakazi, emoyeni kanye   nasemanzini.
EC: European Community:   an association of western European countries established by the Treaty of   Rome in 1957 to facilitate the removal of trade barriers and promote the free   movement of goods, labour services, and capital between member nations  EC: European   Community: Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano yomphakathi   yamazwe aphesheya nezilwandle ezweni lase Yurophu. Inhlangano yamazwe ase   Yurophu eyasungulwa ngesivumelwano sasezweni lase Roma eminyakeni yo 1957   ngenqubo noma ngendlela yokwenza ngcono ukususwa kwezithikamezo ekudayiseni   bese kwesekwa ukuhanjiswa noma ukusatshalaliswa kwezimpahla, ukusebenza,   izidingo, okukhululekile phakathi koyilunga lezizwe kanye nokusungula   imisebenzi, izimboni kanye noma yikuphi okubalulekile uma kusungulwa   ibhizinisi lokhu kungaba imali.
economic   cost: The monetary amount that would be   derived from the employment of a factor of production in the best alternative   use.  economic   cost: Lokhu kuchaza isamba semali   esingatholakala ekusetshenzisweni kwezinto ezidingwa ibhizinisi ukuze likwazi   ukuthola inzuzo njengo mhlaba. Yizindleko zemali ezidaleka lapho kukhiqizwa   okuthile.
economic   rate of return: The discount rate that makes equal   to zero the present value of project benefits, net of costs, when all costs   and benefits are valued to reflect true scarcities in the economy. Economic   rate of return differs from internal rate of return in that costs are   corrected to remove pure transfer payments (such as import duties) and major   price distortions (of capital, foreign exchange, or unskilled labour, for   example), and benefits are corrected to include payments excluded from the   revenue stream, and sometimes also to include conservative estimates of   consumer’s surplus. Used as test against investments that are wasteful of   scarce national (as opposed to company) resources.  economic rate of return:   Lokhu kuchaza izinga lokwehliswa kwenzuzo emisiwe elingana nokuyize uma   sekususwe izindleko zamanye amazwi izindleko zemali nenzuzo elindeleke lapho   kucwaningwa ngokuvezwa kokwenqaba kwezinto emnothweni. Izindleko ziyasuswa   ukuze izinto ezifana nokuthenga emazweni omhlaba nezindleko zakho, kungayenzi   intengo yezinto ibize ngokweqile, (kancane noma kakhulu). Kuyaye kususwe   imali yamazwe angaphandle engumshintshiswano, ezezimali kanye nomsebenzi   okhiqizwa abasebenzi abangaqeqeshiwe. Inzuzo emiselwe njengaleyo enenkokhelo   ekhishwe kwintela kanye nokusalela lapho abathengi bethenga. Isetshenziselwa   ukuvivinya ukutshalwa kwezimali okumosayo lapho kunezinto zokukhiqiza zezwe   eziyidlanzana noma eziyindlala.
economies   of scale: A measurement of economic efficiency   that identifies who produces a good or service at the lowest per-unit cost   and the optimal amount of production. This indicates a situation in which   average (or unit) costs decrease for increasing number of transactions or   units of service. It is an indication of the situation when output increases   to a greater extent than inputs, i.e. when the unit cost of production   decreases as the total volume of output increases.  economies   of scale: Lokhu kuchaza ukukalwa kwendlela   ehlola ekukhiqizeni okuncomekayo ehlola ukuthi yiziphi izinkampani   ezikhiqizayo ngendlela ephansi noma engabizi njalo nje lapho kukhiqizwa   ingxenye yento nento. Ikhombisa ukuthi indlela yokukhiqiza iyehla. Ukubiza   kwayo kodwa kube kunokukhuphuka kwenani lezinto lezo ezikhiqizwayo
economies   of scope: Term used to indicate cost savings   resulting from several outputs being produced by a single entity rather than   by separate entities. A measurement for assessing how efficiently an enterprise   will operate when serving adjacent markets (e.g. whether a telephone company   can efficiently use its network to provide cable television and information   services).  economies   of scope: Lokhu kuchaza igama   elisetshenziswayo lapho kongiwa izindleko ezidaleka lapho kuhlelwa lokho   osekukhiqiziwe yilawo mabhizinisi angawodwa kunalawo ahlukene. Yindlela   yokukala ukuthi angasebenza kanjani amabhizinisi ancikene nezimakethe   (Isibonelo kungaba ukubona ukuthi lezozinkampani zezincingo zingakwazi yini   ukusebenzisa lezozindlela zokuxhumana ezingabhekela izintambo zikamabonakude   kanye nezidingo zolwazi).
economies   of specialisation: Term used to   indicate cost savings resulting from certain goods or services being produced   separately by several entities rather than by a single entity.  economies   of specialisation: Lokhu kuchaza   igama elisetshenziswayo lapho kongiwa izindleko ezidaleka lapho ezinye   zezimpahla noma izidingo zikhiqizwa yizinkampani ezehlukene kunalezo   ezingazodwana.
EDI: Electronic   Data Interchange: electronic   preparation, communication and processing of business transactions in a   predefined, structured format using computers and telecommunications.  EDI: Electronic   Data Interchange: Lokhu kuchaza   amalungiselelo ezinto ezisebenza ngogesi ukuxhumana kanye nokuqhutshwa   kwamabhizinisi ngezinhlelo zokusetshenziswa kwamakhompuyutha kanye   nokuxhumana.
effectiveness:   Effectiveness is measured from the perspective of clients or users of   information services. Examples of measures of effectiveness include user   satisfaction with a service, repeated use of a service, and number of times a   service is used (first order effects). Higher order effects would include   effect of services on the user’s research and consequences of the user’s   research, improved productivity of the user’s operation or research, etc.   Output performance of a service provider partially determines the   effectiveness of the service.  effectiveness:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuphumelela kwento ethile ekwenzeni umsebenzi wayo. Labo   abasebenzisa ulwazi baveza izinkomba zokuthi ulwazi abalusebenzisayo liwusizo   yini. Izibonelo zalokho okukhombisa ukuthi ulwazi lolo luwusizo yini, kungaba   ukweneliseka kwalowo osebenzisa ulwazi, ukusetshenziswa kwaleso sidingo,   ukusetshenziswa kwaleso sidingo izikhathi eziningana, imiphumela ethize   umuntu ayizuza ngokusebenzisa ulwazi lolo, imiphumela yocwaningo, ukusebenza   kangcono okwenziwa ukuba khona kolwazi.
efficiency:   Efficiency is an indicator of how closely an activity approaches maximum or   optimum values. Efficiency is computed by dividing amount actually worked,   used, etc., by the amount possible. Efficiency is not to be confused with   productivity, which is the ratio of output quantities divided by amount of   time or cost (see definition of productivity, below). An operation or   activity can be inefficient but productive or vice versa. Productivity   is probably the more useful indicator of the two, but efficiency should be   calculated because it may be found that productivity is low because staff,   equipment use, or facility use, etc. is inefficient.  efficiency:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwenziwa kwento ethile ngokwanelisayo, nangobuciko.   Ibonakalisa ukuthi into eyenziwayo noma ekhiqizwayo isondela kanjani   eqophelweni eliphezulu esikhathini esingengakanani. Itholakala ngokubala isikhathi   umsebenzi owenziwa ngaso ngokuqhathanisa nesikhathi esinqunyelwe   lowomsebenzi. Kufanele ingathathwa njengento efana nokukhiqiza ikakhulukazi   esikhathini esincane, kanye nezindleko ezincane. Lokho okwenziwayo kungaba   sezingeni eliphezulu kuphinde futhi kutholakale umkhiqizo omuhle. Umkhiqizo   ungaba yisibonakaliso esiwusizo, kodwa ukusebenza ngempumelelo kungabalwa   ngoba kungatholakala ukuthi umkhiqizo uphansi ngenxa yokuthi abasebenzi   namathuluzi asetshenziswayo kanye nezidingo akugculisi.
elasticity   of demand: The intensity of preference for a   good or service based on user reaction to an increase or decrease in   price.  elasticity   of demand: Lokhu kuchaza ukwanda kokudingeka   kwento ethile. Ukusetshenziswa kwezinto ezithile ezidingwa ngabantu kuye ngokuthi   kubathinta kangakanani ukwehla nokwenyuka kwentengo yezinto lezo.
elasticity   of supply: How consumers react to changes in   the availability of a good or service.  elasticity   of supply: Lokhu kuchaza ukwanda   kokusatshalaliswa kwento ethile. Ukutholakala kanye nokungatholakali kwezinto   ezidingwa abantu. Lokhu kwenza ukuthi abantu bathinteke ngandlela thize.
electronic   banking: See Telebanking.  electronic   banking: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwesimanje lokufaka noma lokukhipha imali   emabhange noma ingasiphi isikhathi lapho ukwazi ukusebenzisa imishini   esebenzisa amandla kagesi etholakala ngaphandle ezakhiweni zamabhange futhi   lemishini izisebenzela ngokwayo. Bheka ku telebanking.
Electronic   Bulletin Board: An electronic messaging system and   an information storage area shared by several users, each having access to   all messages left or posted in that area.  Electronic Bulletin Board:   Lokhu kuchaza uqwembe olukhulu olusebenza ngogesi olumiswe endaweni ethile   oluveza ngokuzishintsha lona ukuze lunikeze ulwazi oluthile. Izindlela   zokuxhumana ngokuthumelelana imiyalezo, nokugcina imininingwane nolwazi   olusetshenziswa yilabo abasebenzisa ikhompuyutha. Lokhu kwenzelwa ukuthi lowo   nalowo akwazi ukuthola imiyalezo ayishiyelwe ozakwabo kwikhompuyutha.
electronic   commerce (e-commerce): Consumer and   business transactions conducted over a network, using computers and   telecommunications (syn. = e-commerce)..  electronic   commerce (e-commerce): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuxhumana lapho abasebenzisi noma abathengi namabhizinisi   bethengiselana. Ukuhwebelana, ukuthenga nokudayisa impahla ngokusebenzisa   amakhompuyutha axhumeneyo.
Electronic   Data Interchange (EDI): The use of   telecommunications and information processing to conduct business   transactions, often in an integrated network combining different media, such   as voice, text, and data processing.  Electronic Data Interchange   (EDI): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuqoqa ulwazi   olusetshenziswa ezinhlelweni ezihlukene zokuxhumana ukuze abasebenzisi   bakwazi ukulusebenzisa uma befuna ukuxhumana nezitolo ukuze bathenge lokho   abakudingayo. Ukusebenzisa ezokuxhumana ngolwazi, ukuhwebelana okuvamise   lapho kusetshenziswa amakhompuyutha axhumana ngokusebenzisa ezokusakaza   njengamazwi okubhaliwe kanye nokudluliswa kolwazi oluqukethwe yikhompuyutha.
Electronic   Data Systems (EDS): A Texas-based   company that provides systems integration and one-stop-shopping services in   telecommunications and information processing.    Electronic   Data Systems (EDS): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuqoqa ulwazi, izinhlelo, imininingwane ngohlelo lwekhompuyutha   kungabuye futhi kuthunyelwe kubasebenzisi ngemishini yokuxhumana esebenzisa   amandla kagesi. Inkampani eyasungulwa eTexas eMelika enolwazi olujulile   ekudidiyeleni izindlela zokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha. Isiza ekwethuleni   indawo eyodwa lapho izinkampani ezinye zifumana cishe yonke into eziyidingayo   kwezokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha.
Electronic   Funds Transfer (EFT): The process   through which the banking industry utilises computer and communications   technology to move funds from one banking location and/or account to another.   The use of telecommunications and information processing to achieve a   transfer of money.  Electronic   Funds Transfer (EFT): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokudluliselwa kwezimali ezinhlelweni ezithile ezisetshenziswa   amabhange ngamakhompyutha. Indlela yamabhange yokusebenzisa amakhompuyutha   nezokuxhumana lapho bethumela imali esuke ikulelo bhange iya kwelinye ibhange   kwelinye izwe.
electronic jamming:   The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic   energy for the purpose of controlling or disrupting undesired use of   electronic devices, equipment, or systems.  electronic   jamming: Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenzisa imisebe   okungaba eyanoma iluphi uhlobo ukuze kulawuleke noma kuphazamiseke   ukusetshenziswa kwezixhumanisi ezithumela imibhalo ngokusebenzisa amandla   kagesi. Ukusebenzisa amandla elanga namandla kazibuthe okulawula   ukusetshenziswa okungafuneki kwezinto ezisebenza ngogesi.
electronic mail (e-mail):   An electronic means for communication in which text and attachments can be   transmitted. The e-mail operations include sending, storing, processing, and   receiving information. E-mail users are allowed to communicate under   specified conditions and transmitted messages are held in storage until   called for by the addressee.  electronic   mail (e-mail): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   ngokuthumela imibhalo olusebenzisa ikhompuyutha, uthelefoni kanye ne modem   ukuze umyalezo ufike lapho uya khona. Indlela yokuxhumana ngokubhala incwadi,   kwesinye isikhathi ufake imiqulu nemibiko obuzoyithumela ngosizo   lwekhompuyutha. Ngalendlela yokuthumela umuntu uyakwazi ukuthi athumele noma   athole incwadi. Umuntu uyakwazi futhi ukuthi awugcine umyalezo lowo umuntu   aze awuthole.
electronic   mail / e-mail: A system for entering a document and   transmitting it by electronic means either to its ultimate destination or to   a point near the destination for delivery by post, courier, or some other   means. Computer-mediated text communications.  electronic mail   / e-mail: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthumela imibhalo olusebenzisa   imishini esebenzisa amandla kagesi enjenge khompuyutha, uthelefoni kanye ne   modem. Uhlelo lokufaka imibhalo kanye nokuthunyelwa ngendlela   yokusebenzisa ikhompuyutha ize iyofika kuleyondawo ethunyelwa kuyo kumbe   eduzane kwayo leyondawo ukuze ihanjiswe ngeposi, izithuthi ezisheshayo noma   ezinye-ke izindlela.
electronic   messaging: The creation, transfer, storage, and   retrieval of text, graphics, images, voice, or messages of any nature   entirely by electronic means. Messaging implies retrieval at the recipient’s   discretion, and facilities are generally provided for filing, redirecting,   and replying to messages received.  electronic   messaging: Lokhu kuchaza ukusungula,   ukudlulisa, ukugcina kanye nokutholakala kwemibhalo, imidwebo, izithombe   ozakhele zona engqondweni, amazwi kanye nemiyalezo yanoma iluphi uhlobo   etholakala ngokusebenzisa amandla kagesi. Ukuthumela imiyalezo kungasho   ukuthi itholakala ngemvume yalowo oyemukelayo, kanye nalezo zidingo zokubekwa   ngendlela ehlelekile, ukuziqondisa kanye nokuphendulwa kwaleyo miyalezo esuke   itholakele.
electro-optics:   The technology associated with those components, devices and systems which   are designed to interact between the electromagnetic (optical) and the   electric (electronic) state. The operation of electro-optic devices depends   on modification of the refractive index of a material by electric fields.   (“Electro-optic” is often erroneously used as a synonym for   “opto-electronic”).  electro-optics:   Lokhu kuchaza ubuchwepheshe okufaniswa nalokho okuyizicucu, okuyimishini   kanye nezinhlelo ezakhelwe ukusebenzisana phakathi kwalokho okusebenzisa   amandla kagesi kanye no mazibuthe kanye nesimo samandla kagesi.   Ukusetshenziswa kwalobu buchwepheshe bemishini esebenzisa amandla kagesi   kuncike ekulungisweni kwalokho okukhanyisayo ngokusebenzisa amandla kagesi.   (I–Electro-optic) ingaphanjaniswa isetshenziswe njengo mabizwafane ne   (optic-electronic).
encryption:   The coding of data for privacy protection or security considerations when   transmitted over telecommunications links,    so that only the person to whom it is sent can read it.  encryption:   Lokhu kuchaza ukubhala umbhalo oyimfihlo noma ongafundwa kuphela ilowo   owaziyo. Uhlelo lokufihlwa kwemininingwane ukuze ivikeleke lapho ithunyelwa   ngezindlela zokuxhumana. Lokhu kwenzelwa ukuthi ifundwe kuphela ilowo muntu   osuke ethunyelwe yona.
end   office: The telephone company switching   facility closest to a particular user.  end   office: Lokhu kuchaza imboni yothelefoni   enohlelo lwezinto zokushintshisana kothelefoni eseduze komsebenzi walolu   hlelo.
end-on-end   routing: The segmentation of a route into two   or more segments typically priced individually.  end-on-end   routing: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlukanisa   indlela kabili noma kaningi ngendlela yokubizwa kwamanani ngokwehlukana.
end-to-end   routing: A complete traffic routing   arrangement typically priced at one composite rate.  end-to-end   routing: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluphelele   nokuhlelwa kokuhambisa lokho okuminyene ngendlela yokubizwa kwamanani   ngendlela ehlanganisayo.
enhanced   services: Enhancements to basic common carrier   transmission services involving computer processing that acts on the code,   content, protocol, or format of the information in such a way as to change   the output and possibly also to store it for subsequent retrieval and   manipulation.  enhanced services:   Lokhu kuchaza imisebenzi, ulwazi noma usizo olunwetshiwe. Ukunwetshwa,   ukukhuliswa kwalezo zithuthi ezidlulisa lezozidingo eziphathelene nokusebenza   kwekhompuyutha ngendlela yemfihlo, okuqukethwe, uhlelo lwemithetho kanye   nokuhlelwa kolwazi ngedlela engashintsha lokho osekuhleliwe kwaphinde   kwaqondiswa kanye nokokugcizelela ukuthi kuphinde kutholakale ukuze   kusetshenziswe abathile kuphela.
enterprise   networks: Diversified, customised, and complex   international telecommunications and information networks primarily used by   multinational enterprises to serve particular requirements. These networks   often require the assistance of system integrators and outsourcers who plan,   procure, and manage the network.  enterprise   networks: Lokhu kuchaza ibhizinisi noma imboni   ephathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana.    Okuhlukile, okuvamile, kanye nokuxhumana ezweni lonke okuyinxakanxaka   noma okuningi kanye nolwazi oluphathelene nokuxhumana olusetshenziselwa   ukufeza izidingo ezithile zamabhizinisi axube amanye amazwe. Lezizindlela   zokuxhumana zibuye zidinge usizo lwezinhlelo ezididiyela ndawonye kanye   nalezo ezikhipha imisebenzi yokuhlela ukuthola kanye nokuphatha izinhlelo   zokuxhumana.
equal   access: A requirement that the operating   companies offer switched access and other inter-connections to all   inter-exchange carriers of a type equivalent to that furnished by other large   companies.  equal   access: Lokhu kuchaza ukusatshalaliswa   kokuxhunywa ngokulinganayo kwezinhlelo zokuxhumana emazweni onke. Isidingo   esinikezwa yilezo zimboni ezibhekene nokwamukela lokho okushintshwayo kanye   nokunye ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi okuthunyelwa kulezozithuthi ezishintshisana   khona ngaphakathi ngendlela elinganayo naleyo esetshenziswa ezinye izimboni   ezinkulu.
Erlang:   A unit for measuring telecommunications traffic and capacity needed to   support an acceptable level of service during the busiest usage times.  Erlang:   Lokhu kuchaza umshini wokukala ukuxhumana ngothelefoni okuminyeneyo kanye   nesisindo noma inani okudingekayo ukuze kusekelwe izidingo ngendlela   eyamukelekile ngezikhathi ezisetshenziswa kakhulu.
ESS: Electronic   Switching System (toll switch): an   automatic switching system in which the control elements are mostly   electronic semiconductor devices. Although this class of system includes   hardwired programmable exchanges and wired-logic exchanges into which some   electronic components have been integrated, most ESS exchanges are   stored-programmed systems.  ESS: Electronic   Switching System (toll switch):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluzishintshayo lokuxhumanisa lapho izixhumanisi   ezincane ezisetshenziswa yiloluhlelo zisebenza njengalokho okuthwala amandla   omlilo wokuxhumana. Uhlelo lokushintsha othelefoni olusebenza ngendlela   ezishintshayo lapho uthola ukuthi kusetshenziswa imishini esebenzisa amandla   kagesi. Yize ke loluhlelo lufaka nezinye izinhlelo zokushintsha ezisebenzisa   izintambo eziqinile. Ezinye zalezizintambo zamandla kagesi ziyahlanganiswa.   Ngokuvamile lezizikhungo zokushintsha zigcina izinhlelo ezithile.
European   Committee for Electro-technical Standardisation (CENELEC):   A regional standard-setting body in electrical and electronic matters.  European   Committee for Electro-technical Standardisation (CENELEC):   Lokhu kuchaza umgwamanda wendawo obhekene nezinhlelo zokuphuculwa nokubekwa   kwezimo ezamukelekile kanye nalezo eziphathelene namandla kagesi.
European   Committee for Standardi-sation(CEN):   A regional standard-setting body in all fields except electrical and   electronic matters.  European   Committee for Standardi-sation (CEN):   Lokhu kuchaza umgwamanda wendawo obhekene nezinhlelo zokuphuculwa nokubekwa   kwezimo ezamukelekile kuyoyonke imikhakha ngaphandle kwaleyo ephathelene   namandla kagesi.
European   Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (EUTELSAT):   A regional satellite co-operative providing satellites for delivery of   telecommunications and video programming.  European Telecommunications   Satellite Organisation (EUTELSAT):   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano ephathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana ze (satellite)   ezisiza ekuxhumaniseni ezinhlelweni zothelefoni nangama video. Imboni   yezihlelo zokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini yendawo   ebhekene nezidingo zaloluhlelo zokuxhumana kanye nezinhlelo zalezozithombe   ezixhunywa kumabonakude.
European   Union (EU): The union of European nations   formerly affiliated in a less-integrated European Community.    European   Union (EU): Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano yezizwe noma   inhlangano yamazwe ahlangeneyo.    Inyunyana noma inhlangano yezizwe zaphesheya kwezilwandle zase Yurophu   ezazikade zingaphansi kwaleyo miphakathi yase Yurophu eyayingahlangene.
expenditure:   Expenditure is the amount of funds paid for resources or services at the time   money is exchanged or owed. It is the cost of acquiring resources or   services. Expenditure is not to be confused with expense, which is a   calculation of the cost incurred when the resource or service is used. (See   definition of expense, below.) For example, a microcomputer could be   purchased in one year but used for five years. The purchase of the computer   is an expenditure. Subdividing the cost (for example equally) over the years   calculates the expense or annual cost. Expenditure and expense should be the   same if the resource or service is consumed or used over a short period of   time.  expenditure:   Lokhu kuchaza noma ingabe iluphi uhlelo lwezindleko. Ukusetshenziswa   kwezimali ezisuke zikhokhelwa lokho okuwumcebo noma izidingo lapho   kushintshiswana ngemali noma ngendlela yokukweleta. Izindleko zokuthola   imicebo kanye nezidingo. Ukusetshenziswa kwezimali akufanele kuphanjaniswe   noma kudidaniswe nezikweletu, ezihlangene nezindleko ezitholakala lapho   kusetshenziswe umcebo kanye nezidingo. (Bheka incazelo yezindleko ngezansi.)   Isibonelo kungaba ikhompuyutha encane engathengwa onyakeni owodwa bese   isetshenziswa iminyaka emihlanu. Ukuthengwa kwekhompuyutha kuwukusetshenziswa   kwemali. Ukuhlukanisa izindleko ngokufana eminyakeni eminingi, kungabalwa   izikweletu noma izindleko zonyaka wonke. Ukusetshenziswa kwemali kanye   nezikweletu kufanele kufane uma ngabe lokho okuwumcebo noma izidingo   kungasetshenziswa isikhathi esifushane.
expense:   Expense is a calculation or estimate of the amount paid for a resource or   service when it is used (not to be confused with expenditure: see above). The   process of calculating expense of a resource is referred to as depreciation.   A resource or service is depreciated over specified periods of time (for   example, each of five years in the future).  expense:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko. Izindleko ziwukubalwa noma isilinganiso semali   ekhokhelwa lokho okuyisidingo noma ingcebo lapho sekusetshenzisiwe.   (Akufanele kudidaniswe nokusetshenziswa kwemali). Uhlelo lokubala izindleko   zalokho okuwumcebo kungathathwa njengo kwehla kwezinga. Umcebo noma isidingo   kuyehla ngokwezinga emuva kwesikhathi (isibonelo unyaka owodwa kuleyo   emihlanu esikhathini esizayo).

 

F
 
facilities   network: All equipment, sites, lines,   circuits, and software that are used to provide telecommunications   services.  facilities   network: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwezinto   ezithile okungaba amathuluzi, izakhiwo, ukuthunyelwa kwamandla kagesi kanye   nokunye okungadingeka ohlelweni lendlela yokuxhumana. Iwona wonke amathuluzi,   izikhungo, imizila, izikhungo zikagesi kanye nalokho okuphatha izinhlelo   zekhompuyutha ezisetshenziselwa ukubhekana nezidingo zokuxhumana.
facility:   A fixed, mobile, or transportable structure, including all installed   electrical and electronic wiring, cabling, and equipment and all supporting   structures, such as utility, ground network, and electrical supporting   structures.  facility:   Lokhu kuchaza izinto ezingasetshenziswa okungaba amathuluzi, izakhiwo,   okuhambayo kanye nokunye. Okunganyakazi, ukuhambayo, noma izakhiwo   ezithwalekayo njenge zintambo ezithwala amandla kagesi ezifakwa ezakhiweni,   amakhebula kanye namathuluzi nakho konke okusekele izakhiwo njenga lokho   okusizayo, izintambo zokuxhumana ezihamba phansi, kanye nalezo zakhiwo zikagesi   ezisekelwe.
facsimile   / fax: The communications process in which   graphics or text documents are scanned, transmitted via a (typically dial-up)   telephone line, and reproduced on paper by a receiver. Facsimile device   operation typically follows one of the CCITT standards for information   representation and transmission (Group 1 analogue, with page   transmission in four or six minutes; Group 2 analogue with page   transmission in two or three minutes; Group 3 digital, with page   transmission in less than one minute; and Group 4 digital, defined for   operation in conjunction with teletex).      facsimile   / fax: Lokhu kuchaza umshini oxhunywa   kuthelefoni nakwikhompuyutha okwazi ukuthumela imibhalo ngokuyikopela noma   ngokuyibukela ephepheni obhalwe kulo bese uyithumela lapho ibhekiwe khona.   Uhlelo lokuxhumana lapho othola ukuthi imidwebo kanye nemiqulu ebhalwe   ngohlelo lokuyikopela noma ukuyibukela bese ithunyelwa ngokushaya inombolo   kathelefoni bese iphuma isisephepheni lapho ithunyelwe khona Umshini   wokuthumela imibiko nemidwebo isetshenziswa ngokulandela izinhlelo ze   (CCITT). Lezizinhlelo zisuke zimele ulwazi kanye nokuthunyelwa (iqoqo   lokuqala lohlelo lwe analogue) lokukuthunyelwa kwephepha elilodwa ngemizuzu   emine kuya kweyisithupha, iqoqo lesibili lohlelo lwe (analogue) lapho   kuthunyelwa iphepha ngemizuzu emibili kuya kwemithathu. Iqoqo lesithathu   lendlela yohlelo lwe (digital) iphepha lithunyelwa ngemizuzu engaphansi   kowodwa. Iqoqo lesine olusebenzisa uhlelo lwe (digital) lingachazwa   ngokusebenza okuhambelana nohlelo lokuthumela imiyalezo olubizwa nge   (teletex).
FCC: Federal   Communications Commission: the US   telecommunications regulator at the federal (national) level. It is the   expert regulatory agency created by US federal law to allocate, allot, and   assign spectrum and to oversee broadcasting and common carrier   telecommunications.    FCC: Federal   Communications Commission: Lokhu kuchaza   isigungu esiphathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana. Ilabo abalawula ezokuxhumana   abasezingeni eliphezulu phesheya kwezilwandle e US. Lolu uphiko olungompetha   kwezokulawula olwasungulwa noma olwaqalwa imithetho yamazwe aphesheya   kwezilwandle e US ukuze yabe, ihlukanise, ibuye inikezele nangokukhanya   iphinde iphathe ezokusakaza kanye nokuxhumanisa izithuthi ezijwayelekile.
feedback:   Reaction by a destination (individual, equipment, or system) to a transfer of   information, and transfer of (part of) the reaction to an information   source.  feedback:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokubuyisela impendulo noma ulwazi oluthile emuva   kumuntu obukade uxhumane naye mayelana naloluhlelo.  Isinyathelo esithathwa indawo   obekuthunyelwe kuyo umyalezo (umuntu, amathuluzi, noma indlela) ekudlulisweni   kolwazi nasekudlulisweni (kwengxenye) isinyathelo esibhekiswe kulowo   obethumele umlayezo.
feeder   link: A radio link to and from satellites   for conveying information, including the tracking, telemetry, and network   control needed to maintain a satellite in proper orbit.  feeder link:   Lokhu kuchaza okuthumela ukuxhumana. Ukuxhunyaniswa komsakazo ukuya nokubuya ohlelweni   lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula okujikelezayo emkhathini ekudluliseni ulwazi noma   umyalezo, okuhlanganisa noma okuxuba ukulandela umkhondo, ubungcweti   bokusebenzisa amathuluzi azishintshayo ekukalweni kobungcweti (scientific)   ukuthumela ngomsakazo, kanye nokulawula indlela yokuxhumana edingeka ukuba   igcine uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula okujikeleza emkhathini lube sendaweni   okuyiyona emzileni wokujikeleza.
fibre   optic / (fiber = US spelling): A modern   transmission technology using lasers to produce a beam of light that can be   modulated to carry large amounts of information through fine glass or acrylic   fibres.  fibre optic / (fiber = US spelling):   Lokhu kuchaza indwangu eyakhiwe ngezintambo eziningi ezincane ezifakwe   amakhemikhali ezithwala ukukhanya eziqoqelwe ndawonye ngokuboshwa ngento   ezokwenza ukuthi zibonakale yize noma zimbozwe ngayo. Indlela yesimanje   yobuhlakani bokuthumela esebenzisa ukukhanya ukuze ikwazi ukuveza imisebe   yokukhanya okungashintshwa ukuze kuthwale isamba esikhulu solwazi noma   imiyalezo okufanele idlule engilazini noma esibukweni esibushelelezi noma   izintambo eziningi zincane ezakhiwe ngendwangu efakwe amakhemikheli.
fibre   optic cable (optical fiber cable):   A communication cable containing one or more low-loss, highly transparent   silica, glass, or plastic fibres used to transmit information in the form of   light (that is, signals in the visible or nearly visible region of the   frequency spectrum).  fibre   optic cable (optical fiber cabel):   Lokhu kuchaza intambo ethwala ukukhanya kohlelo lokuxhumana olusemqoka futhi   eboshwa ngendlela yokuthi ikwazi ukubonakala ngaphakathi. Intambo ethwala   uhlelo lokuxhumana enokukodwa noma ngaphezulu kokulahleka okuphansi,   ukubonakala okugqamile koketshezi, ingilazi noma isibuko, noma izintambo   ezakhiwe ngepulasitiki ezisetshenziswa ekuthumemeleni noma ekudluliseni   ulwazi noma umyalezo gesimo noma ngendlela yokukhanya (lokho, izimpawu   ezibonisa ngokucacile noma ngokucishe kucace endaweni yohlelo   lokuphindaphinda yohlelo lokusebenza ngokungafani nangokungalingani).
fibre optic cable:   A telecommunications cable in which one or more optical fibres are used. The   optical fibres are surrounded by buffers, strength members, and jackets for   protection, stiffness, and strength.  fibre optic cable:   Lokhu kuchaza intambo ethwala   ukukhanya okusetshenziswa uhlelo lokuxhumana futhi eboshwe ngendlela yokuthi   ikwazi ukubonakala ngaphakathi. Intambo ethwala uhlelo lokuxhumana   ngothelefoni lapho eyodwa noma ezingaphezulu izintambo eziphathelene   nokukhanya zisetshenzisiwe. Izintambo ezithwala ukukhanya zibe   sezikekelezelwa ngezinto ezivimbela ukugudleka, izinto ezizokwenza kuqine,   kanye nokugqokiswa noma ukuboshwa ngokugqokiswa okuzovikela, ukuba uqhotho,   kanye namandla.
firmware:   Software that is embedded in a hardware device that allows reading and   executing the software, but does not allow modification, e.g., writing   or deleting data by an end user. An example of firmware is a computer program   in a read-only memory (ROM) integrated circuit chip. A hardware configuration   is usually used to represent the software. Another example is a program   embedded in an erasable, programmeable read-only memory (EPROM) chip where   the program may be modified by special external hardware, but not by an   application program.  firmware:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuqina kwento ethile engaphathelana nezinhlelo zekhompuyutha.   Uhlelo lokuxhumana noma lokuqoqa izinhlelo olwakhiwe ngepulasitiki   olunamathiselwe noma oluvalelwe ngokunamathelayo ukuze kunganyakazi kufakwe   noma kube sekufakwa entweni noma esithwalini esakhiwe ngokuqinile okudala   ukuthi kufundeke kanye nokuthumela noma ukusebenza ngohlelo lwe (software)   okungeke kwavumela ushintsho, isibonelo ukubhala noma ukucisha umbhalo   wohlelo lokuqoqa izinhlelo (data) lokhu ke kungenziwa osebenzise kamuva.   Isibonelo sohlelo oluqinile oluthwala izinhlelo, uhlelo lwekhompuyutha   olusenkumbulweni noma isigcinilwazi esibomvu kuphela (ROM) isicucu sesithwali   mandla esihlanganisiwe. Inhlanganisela yezicucu ehlelwekahle yohlelo   oluthwala ulwazi ngokusebenza kwekhompuyutha futhi esingalubiza ngamathumbu   ekhompuyutha (hardware) ijwayele ukusesthenziswa ekumeleni uhlelo lwe   (software). Esinye isibonelo uhlelo oluvalelwe ngokunamathelayo olungasuleki,   okungasetshenziswa ekufundeni enkumbulweni kuphela (EPROM) isicucu lapho   uhlelo lungaguqulwa khona ngohlelo lwe (hardware) lwekhethelo futhi   lwangaphandle kodwa hayi ngokuzanywa kohlelo.
fixed   costs: Costs that remain constant   regardless of changes in the activity level or method of providing the   activity.  fixed costs:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezimi ndawonye noma ezingashintshi. Izindleko ezisala   zimi ndawonye ngisho noma ngabe kube noshintsho ezingeni lohlelo noma   endleleni yokwenza uhlelo.
fixed   satellite service: The use of   satellites to provide service between users at fixed locations.  fixed   satellite service: lokhu kuchaza   ukusetshenziswa okungaguquki kohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula okujikelezayo   emkhathini. Ukusetshenziswa kwaloluhlelo    (satellite) ekuletheni imisebenzi noma usizo phakathi kwabasebenzisi   endaweni enganyakazi.
fixed-satellite service:   A radio-communication service between Earth stations at given positions when   one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed   point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service   includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be effected in the   inter-satellite service, the fixed-satellite service may also include feeder   links for other space radio communications services.  fixed-satellite   service: Lokhu kuchaza imisebenzi engaguquki yohlelo oluthwebula ngemisebe   ejikeleza emkhathini. Umsebenzi wokuxhumana ngomsakazo phakathi   kwesikhumulo sasemhlabeni endaweni elinganayo lapho kuthi eyodwa noma   angaphezulu ama (satellites) esetshenzisiwe, indawo enikeziwe ingaba into   noma indawo ehlukile futhi enganyakazi noma kube indawo enganyakazi   esendaweni ethile, kwesinye isikhathi lolusizo noma umsebenzi uxuba i   (satellite kuya kwenye i satellite) ngo kuhlangana noma ngokuxhumana,   okungenzeka futhi ukuthi kushintshwe emisebenzini yokuxhumana phakathi   nendawo kwe (satellite) umsebenzi we (satellite) enganyakazi kungenzeka uxube   lokho okuletha ukuhlangana kweminye imisebenzi kwizindiza mkhathi   eziphathelene nokuxhumanisa ngokomsakazo.
flat-rate   basis: Method of pricing local service by   which customers pay a regular charge each month for an unlimited number of   calls.  flat-rate   basis: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokukhokhwa   kwezindleko ezifanayo ngezinyanga noma ngeminyaka yonke. Indlela yokubiza   noma yokukala inani emisebenzini yangaphakathi lapho amakhasimende ekhokha   izindleko ezejwayelekile noma ezifanayo njalo ngenyanga ngokushaya izingcingo   noma ikangaki.
flow   chart: Graphic representation of routines   and procedures arranged in order of occurrence.  flow chart:   Lokhu kuchaza ishadi noma iphepha elingabonisa umbhalo womdwebo noma   izinombolo lokhu kungabonisa uhambo noma ukusetshenziswa kwesixhumanisi   esithile. Umbhalo ngohlelo lomdwebo omele izindlela kanye nezinqubo ezihlelwe   ngendlela noma ngokulandelana kokwenzeka kwazo.
footprint:   The range of geographical coverage of a satellite transmission.  footprint:  Lokhu kuchaza umaka, indlela, umzila, noma   umgudu lapho kuhamba khona uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Indawo noma isizinda   sezwe esiqoqa ukusakazwa ngokuthumela kohlelo oluthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza   emkhathini (satellite).
footprint:   In satellite communications, that portion of the Earth’s surface over which a   satellite antenna delivers a specified amount of signal power under specified   conditions. The limiting case of footprint area is always less than half of   the Earth’s surface, and depends on the altitude of the satellite.  footprint:   Lokhu kuchaza umaka, indlela, umzila, noma umgudu lapho kuhamba khona uhlelo   oluthile lokuxhuman. Ekuxhumaneni ngaloluhlelo (satellite), leyo ngxenye   engaphezulu komhlaba okuthi phezukwayo ucingo lokuxhumanisa lohlelo   lokuxhumana ludlulise inani noma isamba esithile salokho okumukelisa amandla   ngaphansi kwezimo ezisemqoka noma ezikhethiwe. Isinyathelo sokukalwa kwesikhundla,   noma indawo yomaka noma umgudu ihlale ingaphansi kwengxenye yengaphezulu   lomhlaba, kanye nokuthi kuyangokuthi isixhumanisi (satellite) siphezulu noma   siphakeme kangakanani.
forebearance:   Concept of refraining from regulating certain common carriers lacking market   power, thereby affording greater flexibility in pricing and providing   service.  forebearance:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuqhela ekuluseni izithwali. Iqhinga lokuqhela   ekuluseni ezinye izithwali ezejwayelekile eziswele amandla ezimakethe,   ngokukwazi ukuphumelela ekutheni kube nokunwebeka okuthexaxa ekubizeni   amanani nase kuletheni umsebenzi.
foreign   correspondent: A carrier that has entered into a   foreign operating agreement with another carrier, entitling it to originate   and terminate international traffic.  foreign correspondent:   Lokhu kuchaza imibiko yamanye amazwe. Isithwali esingene esivumelwaneni   samanye amazwe sokusebenzisana nesinye isithwali, esigunyazwe ukuqala kanye   nokuqeda uxhaxha noma ukuminyana kwasemhlabeni.
frame   relay: A new data transmission technology   that quickly switches and routes digital packets with a low bit error   rate.    frame relay:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lohlelo lokuthumela. Uhlelo olusha lokugcina imibiko   noma izinhlelo olusebenza ngekhompuyutha lobuhlakani bobungcweti bokuthumela   lushintshanisa ngokushesha bese luqondisa ngokuthumela amaphakethe   ayizinombolo ngezinga lenani lesigqi esiphansi ngokwezinga.
franchise (utility):   Authorisation given to a company by a regulatory agency to provide a public   utility service. It usually specifies the geographic area of service and   other obligations and privileges.  franchise (utility):   Lokhu kuchaza okusungulwe umniniko okungasebenzisa igama lakhe noma imibono   yakhe bese eyakuthengisa ngesivumelwano sokuthi ukuze kuqhubeke ngempumelelo   kufanele kubanjiswane ngakho. Futhi kuvunywelwana ngesamba semali esiza   ukukhokha komthengi nyanga zonke noma minyaka yonke kumthengisi ngenxa   yokuthi uyena osungule lokhu okubanjiswene ngakho (utility). Lokhu kuchaza   izidingo ezibalulekile nje ngamanzi, umbani noma ugesi kanye nokunye. Imvume   enikwe imboni noma inkampani yezimboni yokulawula ukuze ilethe imisebenzi   yezidingo ezibalulekile emphakathini. Kujwayele ukuchaza isiqhingi sendawo   yomsebenzi kanye nezinye izethembiso kanye nama lungelo.
Freenet:   Non-profit community organisation that provides free access to electronic   mail and information services and to computer networks such as the   Internet.  Freenet:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana olungabizi mali.  Imboni yomphakathi engenzi mali esiza   ngohlelo lokuthumela ngekhompuyutha imibiko kanye nolwazi lwemisebenzi   esiteshini noma esikhumulweni lapho kuxhumana khona amakhompuyutha   ngokuhlanganyela. Efana nokuxhumana ngocingo noma uthelefoni oxhunywe   ekhompuyutheni othumela imiyalezo efika isiwumbhalo lapho iyakhona   (internet).
frequency allocation:   The process of designating radio-frequency bands for use by specific   radio services. It encompasses the allocation of a given frequency band for   the purpose of its use by one or more (terrestrial or space) radio   communication services or the radio astronomy service under specified   conditions.  frequency allocation:   lokhu kuchaza ukwaba ukuphindaphinda. Umsebenzi ogunyaziwe ekuphindaphindeni   kokumukela kwezikhumulo, izikhungo noma iziteshi zomsakazo ekusetshenzisweni   okuhlukile noma okukhethiwe kwemisebenzi yomsakazo. Kufana nesabelo   sesikhungo, isikhumulo, noma isiteshi sokuphidaphinda esinikeziwe ngesizathu   sokusetshenziswa kwaso kanye noma ngaphezulu (okufana noma kusebenza njengezindingilizi   ezihlala emkhathini noma indiza mkhathi) imisebenzi yokuxhumana yomsakazo   noma isifundo semisebenzi yobungcweti ngokusebenza komsakazo ngaphansi   kwezizathu ezihlukile.
frequency   management: The monitoring of the occupancy of   the radio spectrum and the assignment of frequencies to radio services so as   to enable the maximum number of services to operate with the minimum   interference. Sometimes referred to as spectrum management.  frequency management:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuphathwa kokuphindaphinda. Ukuqashelwa, ukubhekisiswa noma   ukugadwa emsakazweni kokusetshenziswa noma ukuhlala ngobuningi okungafani   futhi ngokungalingani kanye nokunikwa kokuphindaphinda emisebenzini yomsakazo   ekuphumeleliseni inani eliphezulu lemisebenzi ekutheni lisebenze noma liqhubeke   ngokubangisa noma ukuphazamisa okusezingeni eliphansi, kwesinye isikhathi   kuyadluliswa noma kufaniswe, kubhekiswe, ekuphathweni ngobuningi okungafani   nokungalingani.
front-end processor (FEP):   A programmed-logic or stored-program device that interfaces data   communication equipment with an input/output bus or memory of a data   processing computer.  front-end   processor (FEP): Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye yomshini noma   umshini oxhunywa kwikhompuyutha ukuze ikwazi ukusebenza ngohlelo uluthile.   Ubuhlakani noma ulwazi olugayiwe, oluqoshiwe ngohlelo lwekhompuyutha. Kungaba   isicucu, umshini ogcina izinhlelo ngokuxhumana nohlelo oluqoqa izinhlelo,   imigomo neminye imininingwane esemqoka engaba izinamba noma amagama   ekuxhumaneni okusebenzisa amakhompuyutha, loluhlelo (data) luyithuluzi   lokuxhumana elinohla olugcina okungenayo, okuphumayo ngokomgudu, indlela noma   inkumbulo yaloluhlelo (data) lokudlulisela noma lokwenza lwekhompuyutha.
full-motion   video: Video that is perceived to provide   smooth, continuous motion (higher than 32 frames per second).  full-motion   video: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lomshini   wokuxhumana ngezinga eliphezulu lomshini usebenzisana nomabonakude kanye   nemishini ethwebula okuyimifanekiso. Lomshini (video) waziwa njengoletha,   odlulisela ukuhamba okungenazihibe okuqhubekayo noma isimo esiqhubekayo   kungaba sendaweni ethile (okungaba ngaphezudlwana kwalokho okwamashumi   amathathu nesibili sokwahlukanisiwe (frames) ngesigamu).
Fully   Allocated Activity Cost (FAAC): The total   cost of an activity, including both direct and indirect costs.  Fully   Allocated Activity Cost (FAAC): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlelo olwabelwe izindleko ngakwanele. Isamba sezindleko esibekelwe   uhlelo, esihlanganisa izindleko ezingabizwa kunoma ubani okufanele azikhokhe   (direct cost) kanye nezindleko ezingeke zabhekiswa kumuntu othile (indirect   costs).
Fully   Distributed Costs (FDC): Costing that   includes a contribution to fixed costs by all consumers.  Fully   Distributed Costs (EDC): Lokhu kuchaza   isamba esabelwe izindleko ngokwanele. Ukubalwa kwezindleko okuhlanganisa   umnikelo kulezozindleko ezingaguquki noma ezingashintshi abasebenzisi   (consumers).
Future   Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Service (FPLMTS):   A concept for accommodating the growing telecommunications requirements of   mobile users with additional spectrum allocations and new services.   Terrestrial systems will provide most of FPLMTS, augmented by some satellite   operations.  Future   Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Service (FPLMTS):   Lokhu kuchaza izinhlobonhlobo zezinhlelo nezindlela zokuxhumana zomahamba   nedlwana eziyobe sezisetshenziswa ngokuzayo emhlabeni. Icebo lokufaka   ukukhula kwezidingo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni kwabasebenzisi bohlelo lomahamba   nendlwana ngokuphindaphindeka ngohlelo lwezindawo olokungalingani nokungafani   kanye nemisebenzi emisha. Uhlelo lwemihlaba emkhathini oluletha inqwaba ye   FPLMTS, ekhuliswe noma eyandisiwe imisebenzi noma ukusebenza kohlelo   lokuxhumana oluthwebulayo ngemisebe ejikelezayo oluhamba emkhathini ngomoya.

 

G
 
gateway:   A satellite Earth station or submarine cablehead where domestic facilities   access international transmission facilities.  gateway:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwendlela ethile okungahamba kuyo noma yini. Isikhungo   noma isiteshi esisemhlabeni sohlelo lokuxhumana lwe (satellite) noma inhloko   yekhebula noma intambo ehamba ngaphansi kwamanzi olwandle lapho izinto   zangaphakathi ekhaya zithola izinto zamazwe zokuthumela.
gateway:   A network node in a communications network which is equipped for interfacing   with another network that uses different protocols. A protocol   translation/mapping gateway interconnects networks with different network   protocol technologies by performing the required protocol conversions. A   computer can be configured to perform the tasks of a gateway.  gateway:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwendlela   yokudlula noma okungahamba kuyo noma yini. Uhlelo lokuxhumana lapho   kuhlanganwa khona ohlelweni lokuxhumana oluhlome ngokuthi ukwazi ukuphumelela   ekuxhumaneni nolunye uhlelo lokuxhumana olusebenzisa izindlela noma imithetho   engafani. Uhlelo lwemithetho yencazelo noma ebonisa ngendlela yokubala indawo   ekubonisweni kwendlela ehlanganisa phakathi nendawo izindlela zokuxhumana   izihlanganisa nalezo zolunye uhlobo lwendlela yobungcweti bobuhlakani   yokuxhumana olusebenzisa izindlela noma imithetho engafani ngokuthi   iphumelele ukwenza ushintsho emithethweni nase zindleleni ezingafani   ikushintshele kokudingekayo. Ikhompuyutha ingahlelwa ukuze ikwazi ukwenza   umsebenzi wendlela noma umzila.
geo-stationary orbit:   A circular orbit in the equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about   the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earth’s   rotation. An object in a geo-stationary orbit will remain directly above a   fixed point on the equator at a distance of approximately 42,164 km from the   centre of the Earth, i.e. approximately 35,787 km above mean sea   level.  geo-stationary orbit:   Lokhu kuchaza into emile ngokomhlaba kodwa ibe ijikeleza ngokwesi bhakabhaka.   Indingilizi ejikeleza esicabeni esisondelene nenkabazwe, kunoma iluphi   uhlangothi noma indawo okuthi phezukwayo ijikeleze eduze komhlaba ijikelezele   ohlangothini olufanayo nangesikhathi esifana nesokujikeleza komhlaba. Into   noma isicucu esisemhlabeni obukeka umile kanti uyajikeleza lesisicucu ke sona   sisala ngqo ngaphezu kwento noma indawo enganyakazi eba phakathi komhlaba   ebangeni elicishe lilinganiswe no 42,164 ibanga ukusuka phakathi nendawo   emhlabeni isibonelo kucishekube u 35,787 ibanga ngaphezu kweleveli yolwandle   olungcolile.
geo-stationary satellite:   A satellite that remains approximately fixed relative to the Earth. A   geo-synchronous satellite is therefore one whose circular and direct orbit   lies in the plane of the Earth’s equator.  geo-stationary satellite:   lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana olumile emhlabeni kodwa lube lujikeleza   ngokwesibhakabhaka. Indawo engaphezu komhlaba lapho izicucu noma izinto   ezithunyeliwe zibukeka sengathi zimi ndawonye njengomhlaba. Uhlelo   lokuxhumana lwe satellite olusebenza ngokufana nezinye izinhlelo yilo lodwa   oluyindingilizi kanye nokujikeleza okuthe ngqo kuqondana noma kuba sendaweni   eyisicaba eba maphakathi nomhlaba.
geo-stationary:   The location above the Earth where launched objects appear stationary   relative to Earth. Satellites become geostationary at approximately 27,700   kilometres in altitude. Placing satellites in geostationary orbit above the   equator maximises the scope of geographical coverage.  geo-stationary:   Lokhu kuchaza into emile engajikelezi emhlabeni. Indawo ngaphezu komhlaba   lapho okususwe emhlabeni kubukeka kumile kunomhlaba. Uhlelo lokuxhumana   ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini lube selubukeka lumile   ngokomhlaba kucishe kulingane no 27,700 ibanga ekuphakameni kwayo. Ekubekeni   lezinhlelo zama (satellites) kulendawo ebukeka inganyakazi ngokomhlaba kodwa   ebonakala iphenduka ngaphezu kwemaphakathi lomhlaba okube sekwandisa indawo   okusebenza ngayo okukhuluma noma okuthinta konke okuphathelene nezwe.
gigahertz   (GHz): A measure of radio frequency   equivalent to 1 billion hertz (cycles per second).  gigahertz   (GHz): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokukala   ukuphindaphinda kokumukela okungaba okomsakazo noma umabonakude. Ukukala   ukuphindaphinda kokumukela komsakazo okulingana no 1billion hertz   (imijikelezo ngesigamu).
GII: Global   Information Infrastructure: a concept that   globally extends national initiatives to promote widespread deployment and   access to broadband digital technologies and services requiring high-speed   digital transmission (e.g. video programming, telemedicine, large data file   transport, and Internet access).    Global Information Infrastructure denotes a global information highway   initiative put forward by the United States to G7 countries.  GII: Global   Information Infrastructure: Lokhu kuchaza   ingqalasizinda yolwazi yomhlaba. Umbono onweba ngokomhlaba izinyathelo   ezisemqoka zesizwe ukuze kusekwe ukutshalwa ngokubanzi kanye nokuphumelela   ezikhungweni ezivulekile zobuhlakani bobungcweti lohlelo olusebenzisa   okuyizinombolo kanye nemisebenzi edinga ukuthumela ngohlelo lwezinombolo   olunejubane eliphezulu (isibonelo okuhlelwe ngomshini obonisa izithombe   zebhayisikobho olusebenza ngethelevishini, telemedicine, large data file   transport, kanye nokuphumelela ohlelweni lwe internet). Ingqalasizinda   yolwazi lomhlaba ichaza noma imele indlela ephakeme ekuthathweni   kwezinyathelo ezisemqoka zolwazi lomhlaba ezibekwe phambili inhlangano   yamazwe aphesheya nezilwandle izibeka kwinhlangano yamazwe ayisikhombisa.
global address:   The pre-defined address that is used In a communications network as an address   for all users of that network. It may not be the address of an individual   user, or subgroup of users, of the network.  global address:   Lokhu kuchaza ikheli elisetshenziswa ekuxhumaneni ilabo abasebenzisa uhlelo   oluthile lokuxhumana. Igama noma ikheli elichaziwe ekuqaleni okuyilo   elisetshenziswayo ekuxhumaneni ngendlela yokuxhumana njengekheli labo bonke   abasebenzisi baleyo ndlela yokuxhumana. Kungenzeka kungabi ikheli   lomsebenzisi oyedwa, noma iqele labasebenzisi, lendlela yokuxhumana.
Global   Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM):   A standard for digital cellular radio systems that originated in Europe.  Global   Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM):   Lokhu kuchaza izinhlelo zomhlaba zezindlela zokuxhumana ngohlelo lomahamba   nendlwana. Izinga lezinhlelo zomsakazo kamakhalekhukhwini olusebenza ngohlelo   lwezinombolo olwaqhamuka phesheya nezilwandle ezweni lase Yurophu.
globalisation:   Expanding the trading, marketing, and operational scope of an enterprise; for   example, PTTs facing lost market share domestically as a result of market   entry may seek market share in foreign markets.  globalisation:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokusatshalaliswa kwento ethile ukuze itholakale umhlaba   wonke. Ukwandisa noma ukusabalalisa ukudayisa, ukuthenga, kanye nokusebenzela   emathubeni amaningi noma kokuningi kwebhizinisi noma imboni, isibonelo PTTs   abhekene nokulahleka kwemakethe isabelo lapha ngaphakathi ekhaya nje   ngomphumela wokungena emakethe ongadinga imakethe eyisabelo ezimakethe   zamanye amazwe.
GNP:   Gross National Product:  the total   value of all final goods and services produced in an economy without   allowance for capital depreciation.  GNP:   Leligama lichaza iminotho engaba imikhiqizo, noma imisebenzi yezwe. Lokhu   kuchaza isibalo nokubaluleka kwezimpahla eziphelele futhi esezilungile   nemisebenzi okukhiqizwe emnothweni ngaphandle kokuvumela ukulahlekelwa   enanini noma kwisamba esiqale ngaso.
Green   Paper: A vehicle for publishing future   policy objectives. The Green Paper typically analyses trends in policy and   proposes certain issues for broader discussion and action.  Green Paper:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo olubhalwe phansi kungaba imigomo noma iziphakamiso   eziqhamuka kuHulumeni eziphathelene nomphakathi. Lolu hlelo kuthiwa luyimoto   yokubhala noma ukusakaza izivuno noma izinzuzo ngekusasa lemigomo. Lolu hlelo   oubhalwe phansi lwemigomo noma iziphakamiso lubheka okufanele kwenzeke   ngendlela elisuke liyichaze ngayo, lubheka izindlela emigomweni noma   eziphakamisweni bese luhlongoza eminye imibandela yezingxoxo nezinyathelo ezibanzi.
Gross   National Product (GNP): An aggregate   measure of income generated from all goods and services.  Gross National Product (GNP):   Lokhu kuchaza imikhiqizo, iminotho, imisebenzi yezwe elithile. Inani lesikalo   esisemqoka lesinyathelo elingenisa imali etholakale noma ephume ezimpahleni   zonke kanye nasemisebenzini.
gross   revenue: The total amount of sales revenue,   before deductions for returns and allowances but after deductions for trade   discounts, sales, taxes, excise taxes based on sales, and cash   discounts.  gross   revenue: Lokhu kuchaza isamba semali   esitholakele ngokudayisa noma ekuqhutshweni kwebhizinisi elithile   kungakasuswa intela. Inani lesamba semali yokudayisiwe, kungakasuswa lutho   kokubuyile noma okungadayisanga kanye nasezimalini ezibekelwe noma yini   engase yenzeke kodwa emuva kwezimali ezisusiwe ngenxa yeziphulelo, izintela,   nezinye izinhlobo zezintela ezincike kokuthengisiwe nezaphulelo kokuthengiswe   kwasekutholakala imali ngasoleso sikhathi.

 

H
 
half   circuit: The smallest unit of international   transmission capacity matched by foreign correspondents to route   traffic.  half   circuit: Lena ingxenye encane yohlelo   lokuthumela ukuxhumana kungaba okwezwi noma ngogesi. Ingxenye encane yomhlaba   ezingeni lokuxhumana elilinganiswe izintatheli zamanye amazwe ekuthumeleni   uxhaxha noma okuningi.
hardware:   A generic term dealing with physical equipment as opposed to computer   programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation. The physical   equipment includes devices forming a computer and peripheral components.  hardware:   Leli ithuluzi elifakwa phakathi kwi khompuyutha ukuze isebenze noma singathi   amathumbu noma injini yekhompuyutha. Lokhu kufanisa sikhathi noma sivumelwano   esiphathelene noma esisebenzisana namathuluzi athintekayo noma abambekayo.   Lokhu ke kuyaphikisana nezinhlelo zekhompuyutha, izinqubo, imithetho kanye   nemibhalo esondelene noma encikene. Lamathuluzi athintekayo noma aphathekayo   axuba izicucu noma imishini eyakha ikhompuyutha kanye nezingxenye   ezingabalulekile.
harmful   interference: Spectrum usage that endangers,   degrades, or deteriorates the proper functioning of another registered   spectrum use.  harmful interference:   Lokhu kuchaza ukubangisa okungalimaza noma okuyingozi. Ukusebenza   okwahlukahlukene noma okungafani okubeka ebungozini, obehlisa izinga, noma   ukushabalala ukusebenza kwangempela okubhaliswe noma okusemthethweni   kokusetshenziswa kokunye okwahlukahlukana noma okungafani.
HDTV: High-Definition   Television: television with greater resolution   than the current 525-line television standard. The development of a video   transmission and production standard calling for higher resolution and better   sound quality.  HDTV: High   Definition Television: Lokhu kuchaza   umabonakude noma ithelevishini ekwazi ukumukela kalula noma exhunywe   yahlanganiswa neminye imishini esebenzelana nomabonakude ukuze imukele   kalula. Lomabonakude noma ithelevishini inomgangatho ekuxazululeni ukwedlula   elinye izinga lokusebenza lethelevishini elibizwa nge 525 line yamanje   Ukuthuthuka ekuthumeleni ngomshini ophathelene nokuxhumana futhi ongabonisa   izithombe kumabonakude ngesilungu obizwa ngokuthi (i video) kanye nokukhiqiza   okusezingeni ekubizeni ngenxa yezinga eliphakeme lezinyathelo kanye nezwi   elingcono lekhethelo.
Heads   of Agreement: A preliminary agreement by   governments and business enterprises articulating general terms followed by a   more comprehensive document.  Heads   of Agreement: Lokhu kuchaza isivumelwano esingaba   phakathi kuka Hulumeni nosozimboni futhi lesisivumelwano sibhalwa phansi.   Lesi isivumelwano sokuqala phakathi kuka Hulumeni nenhlanganisela yosozimboni   esingumhlahlandlela ngokuzwana ezivumelwaneni ezijwayelekile ezibe   sezilandelwa imibhalo emifushane.
hertz:   A unit of frequency designating one cycle per second.  hertz:   Lokhu kuchaza into eyodwa ehlangene ewuhlelo olukwazi ukuphindaphinda ukuze   kuthumeleke izwi elingahamba emkhathini noma emoyeni lingathunyelwa   kumabonakude noma emsakazweni. Imbumba yokuphindaphinda enikwe umjikelezo   owodwa ngesigamu.
heterogeneous multiplexing:   Multiplexing in which not all the information-bearer channels operate at the   same data signalling rate.  heterogeneous   multiplexing: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthize   lokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha. Ebunzimeni kuyenzeka ukuthi imigudu yabathwali   bolwazi ingakwazi ukusebenza ngesikali esibonisayo futhi esifanayo sohlelo   lokuqoqwa noma lokugcina imininingwane ebalulekile noma izinhlelo olusebenza   ngekhompuyutha.
heuristic routing:   a routing in which data, such as time delay, extracted from incoming messages,   during specified periods and over different routes, are used to determine the   optimum routing for transmitting data back to the sources. Heuristic routing   allows a measure of route optimisation based on recent empirical knowledge of   the state of the network.  heuristic   routing: Lokhu kuchaza enye inhlobo yohlelo   olusebenza ngekhompuyutha olungasebenzi njengalezi esesike sakhuluma ngazo   kodwa nalo luqukethe imibiko noma izinhlelo eziqoqiwe zagcinwa kulo loluhlelo   ekhompuyutheni futhi okuzothi uma sezidingeka zivunjuluwe kuyo phela   ikhompuyutha. Lena indlela lapho imibiko noma izinhlelo ezinjengo   kubambezeleka, kwesikhathi okususelwa emiyalezweni engenayo, ngesikhathi   esichaziwe, kanye naphezu kwezindlela ezihlukene, ezisetshenziswa ekuchazeni   indlela yekhethelo yokudlulisa noma ukuthumela imibiko noma izinhlelo emuva   kulabo eziphume kubo. Indlela yokufunda exuba ukusetshenziswa kwezizathu   nolwazi ngokwaziyo esikhundleni sokusebenzisa izindlela noma izixazululi   onikwe zona indlela evumela isinyathelo sokwenza ngcono indlela ephathelene   noma ehambisana okwamanje nokuthembela entweni ongayenza kunento ogcina   ngokuyilalela yomhlaba wokuxhumana.
hierarchical   classification (hierarchy): A method of   classification in which a series of classes are divided into successive   subordination.  hierarchical classification   (hierarchy): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokwehlukanisa   abantu noma izinto ezithile ngobukhulu bezikhundla zabo. Yindlela   yokwehlukanisa amaqoqo abantu noma izinto ezinezimpawu ezifanayo   ngokulandelana kuye ngobukhulu bezikhundla zabo kumbe lokho okungabalulekile   ngokwezikhundla.
hubbing:   The aggregation of traffic from throughout a region, thereby achieving   circuit-loading efficiency and economies of scale. Hubbing in   telecommunications is analogous to airport hubbing, where long-haul routes   are loaded from a number of short-haul traffic originating in nearby   localities.    hubbing:   Lokhu kuchaza isizinda salokho okubalulekile Yiqoqo lalokho okuminyene   okusuke kuphuma kuyo yonke indawo lapho othola ukuthi kuphumelela lokho   okusuke kuthwele amandla kagesi ngokweqophelo eliphezulu kanye nesilinganiso   salokho okuphathelene nomnotho. Isizinda sokubalulekile kwezokuxhumana   ngothelefoni siyefana nesizinda sokubalulekile esikhumulweni sezindiza, lapho   uthola ukuthi lokho okuhamba isikhathi eside kusuke kugcwaliswe yilokho   okuthi kuminyene kube kushesha futhi kuvela ezindaweni eziseduze.
hypermedia:   Use of data, text, graphics, video and voice as elements in a hypertext   system. All the forms of information are linked together, so that a user can   easily move from one form to another.  hypermedia:   Lokhu kuchaza lokho okuhlanganisa lonke ulwazi ndawonye. Ukusetshenziswa   kolwazi olugcinwa kwikhompuyutha lokhu kungasho okubhalwe phansi, okudwetshwe   kahle, okuyisithombe kumabonakude, kanye nezwi. Kungaba khona nalokho   okuwumsuka ohlelweni lwalokho okudidiyele konke okubhaliwe. Zonke izinhlobo   zolwazi zihlanganiswe ndawonye, ukuze kube lula kulowo ozidingayo noma   ozisebenzisela ukuthi asuke kuloluhlelo aye kolunye.
hypertext:   Text that contains embedded links to other documents or information.  hypertext:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lombhalo.oluhlangene neminye imibhalo. Imibhalo equkethe   lokho okungashintshi noma okuhlangene ngokuxhumana nezinye izincwadi noma   ulwazi.

 

I
 
Improved-Definition Television (IDTV):   Television transmitters and receivers that are built to satisfy performance   requirements over and above those required by the country standard. IDTV   improvements may be made at the TV transmitter or the receiver, examples of   which include enhancements in encoding, digital filtering, scan   interpolation, interlaced line scanning, and ghost cancellation. (synonym   =  enhanced-quality television). Access   may be multiple, sequential, or random.  Improved   Definition Television (IDTV): Lokhu   kuchaza umabonakude osuthuthukile. Ukwamukela nokudlulisa noma ukuthumela   kukamabonakude okwenziwe ngendlela eyanelisa izidingo zokusebenza kwawo,   nangaphezu kwalezo ezamukelekile ezidingwa yizwe. Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-IDTV   kungenziwa lapho umabonakude wedlulisa noma lapho wemukela khona.  Izibonelo kungaba wukuthuthukiswa kwalokho   okuyimfihlo, ukudluliswa kwalokho okusebenzisa izinombolo kanye   nokubhekisiswa kwalokho okunezezelwe emibhalweni. Ukubhekisiswa kwemigqa   exhunywe ngokusondelana, kanye nokucishwa kwalokho okusuke kungabhalwanga   wumnikazi.
inband   signaling: The customary process of including   switching and routing information as headers preceding the call, increasingly   replaced by out-of-band signalling.  inband   signaling: Lokhu kuchaza isignali esebenzisa   izinombolo. Yinqubo yokwenziwa kwezinto ngesikhathi esithile njengokushintsha   kanye nokuthumela ulwazi njengalokho okuvela kuqala ngaphambi kocingo   lukathelefoni. Lokho kungenza ukuthi kuqhutshekwe kumelwe amasignali angasebenzisi   izinombolo.
incentive   regulation: Alternatives to the conventional   rate base regulation designed to reward innovation and efficiency by allowing   carriers to capture financial gains rather than automatically flow them to   ratepayers through refunds or lower rates.  incentive   regulation: Lokhu kuchaza imithetho yokulawula   inzuzo etholakale ngenxa yokusebenza kahle noma ngokwanelisayo. Kungaba   ngezinye zezindlela zokushintsha kwesizinda somthetho wentela owakhelwe   ukuthi unikeze imibono emisha noma izindlela kanye nempumelelo ngendlela   yokuvumela izithuthi ukuthi zithole inzuzo yemali kunokuthi idlulele kalula   kubakhokhi bentela ngokuthi bathole ukubuyiselwa imali noma bakhokhe intela   encane.
inclined   orbit: Satellite orbits that conserve   station-keeping fuel to extend the operational life of a satellite by   allowing it to deviate slightly from a geosynchronous orbit, thereby   requiring Earth station tracking.    inclined   orbit: Lokhu kuchaza umjikelezo. Lawa   ngamasatellite orbits agcina uphethiloli ukuze isiteshi sihlale sinawo.   Ngaleyondlela kungandiswa izinga lokusebenza kwesatellite ngokuvumela ukuthi   yehluke kancane kwi “geosynchronous orbit” esuke idinga ukulandela   isiteshi esisemhlabeni.
incremental   costs: The amount of variable costs   associated with each transaction or unit.  incremental   costs: Lokhu kuchaza ukwenyuswa   kwezindleko. Yinani lezindleko ezehlukene eziphathelene nokuthenga into   eyodwa.
incumbent   carriers: Carriers that have installed an   extensive network and have  previously   faced only limited, if any, competition.  incumbent   carriers: Lokhu kuchaza izithuthi   ezibalulekile. Yizithuthi ezifakwe inxakanxaka yokuxhumana ongase uthole   ukuthi ukuncintisana kuncane uma kukhona.
Indefeasible   Right of User (RIU): A method for   conveying the rights, but not the title, to use international   telecommunications capacity.  Indefeasible   Right of User (RIU): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lwendlela ethile yokudlulisela ilungelo lokusebenzisa into ethile   kunoma ngubani. Yindlela yokwedlulisa amalungelo, hayi igama lakho, ukuze   ukusebenzise ngokwezinga lobukhulu kwezokuxhumana ngocingo kuzwelonke.
indicators:   Sometimes it is not possible to measure input, output, performance, or   effectiveness directly. Indicators may be needed for higher order effects.   For example, one indicator of research output is number of laboratory notes   or articles written which report the research.  indicators:   Lokhu kuchaza lokho okubonisayo.    Ngesinye isikhathi akwenzeki ukuthi ukale lokho okuwulwazi olufakwe   kwikhompuyutha, ulwazi oluhlelwe lwaphinde lwakhishwa yikhompuyutha, ukukwazi   ukwenza, ukusebenza ngempumelelo qobo.    Lokho okubonisayo kungadingeka kulokho okuseqophelweni eliphezulu.   Isibonelo kungaba yisibonisi esisodwa sokufuna ulwazi oluhlelwe kuyona   ikhompuyutha. Kungaba yinombolo yokubhaliwe “elaboratory” noma   ezincwadini ezibhaliwe ezisibikela ngokufuna ulwazi.
indirect   costs: Costs that are not easily assignable   or readily attributable to any one service, activity, or function.  indirect   costs: Lokhu kuchaza izindleko okungaba   noma ezani okungelula ukuthi zingabizwa kubani. Lezi zindleko akulula ukuthi   ungazibiza kubani noma esezilungele ukudaleka noma ukubakhona kunoma imuphi   umsebenzi, uhlelo noma umcimbi.
indirect   operating costs: These costs include centrally   budgeted items (for example, utilities, rent, insurance, etc.) that are   necessary to the general operation of the library system.  indirect   operating costs: Lezi izindleko ezisemqoka ekuqaleni   isakhiwo esithile noma umsebenzi othile nazoke ngeke wazibiza noma uzifune   kumuntu. Lezi zindleko zixuba izimpahla ezisemqoka futhi ezivele zibekelwe   imali yazo (isibonelo) (amanzi, noma ugesi, imali yokuqasha, imali   yomshwalensi) zisemqoka ekuqhubekeni noma ekusebenzeni okwejwayelekile   ohlelweni lwebhizinisi lomtapo wezincwadi
indirect   support costs: Costs for support services that   benefit overall administration of the library information system and its   services (for example: administration, accounting, personnel, etc.).  indirect   support costs: Lezi izindleko noma izimali ezifakwa   ebhizinisini eselikhona ukuze liqhubeke kahle kungaba ezokugcina amabhuku   noma ukukhokhela izisebenzi. Lezi zindleko ezokushoka noma ukumisa imisebenzi   ezohlomulisa lonke uhlelo kanye nemisebenzi yalo oluphethe noma abaphathi bomtapo   wezincwadi (isibonelo abaphathi, abagcini mabhuku, izisebenzi, kanye   nokunye).
individual reception:   In the broadcasting-satellite service, this concerns the reception of   emissions from a space station by domestic installations, particularly those possessing   small antennae.  individual   reception: Lokhu kuchaza izinga, isimo somuntu   oyedwa  soku xhumeka noma ukuxhumana   kungaba ngokomsakazo noma ngokuka mabonakude. Ekusakazeni ngomsebenzi wohlelo   lobuchwepheshe lwesimanje olusezingeni eliphezulu emhlabeni jikelele oluhamba   futhi lumukele emkhathini noma emoyeni lokhu kukhathaza noma kuhlupha,   kuphazamisa ukuxhumana noma ukuhlangana kokusuke sekudedelwe esikhumulweni   somkhathi ngenxa yokufakiwe noma okuxhunywa ngaphakathi noma ekhaya,   ikakhulukazi lezo ezidonsa umoya noma izingcingo zokuxhumana ezincane.
industry standard:   A voluntary, industry-developed document that establishes requirements for   products, practices, or operations.  industry   standard: Lokhu kuchaza umgomo noma umthetho   obekwe izimboni ezithile okufanele ulandelwe uma kwakhiwa noma yini elawulwa   yilomgomo. Imboni eyazikhetha noma eyazikhethela ukuthuthukisa noma ukwenza   iphepha elisungula izidingo ukuze kuzanywe ezimpahleni noma ezinqubweni.
Information   Management: Management of the acquisition,   organisation, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information – can   combine such traditional organisational functions as data processing,   telecommunications, records control, and user services.  Information   Management: Lokhu kuchaza ukuphathwa kolwazi,   imininingwane, izinhlelo kanye nokunye okubalulekile. Ukuphathwa kokuceliwe   noma okuthunyelwe, okuhleliwe noma okuhlelekile, isilondolozi, ukuhlwaya,   kanye nokusatshalaliswa kolwazi kungahlanganisa osekuyisiko okuhlobene   ngokwemisebenzi njengohlelo oluyisigayi noma oluyinqubo oluqukethe izinhlelo,   imibiko eqoqiwe yagcina kulo loluhlelo olusebenza ngekhompuyutha, ukuxhumana   ngothelefoni, ukulawulwa kwemibhalo egciniwe esemqoka kanye nalabo abaphethe   imisebenzi noma abayisebenzisayo.
Information   Networks: Interconnected or interrelated   communication channels, linked for the transmission or exchange of   information.  Information Networks:   Lokhu kuchaza ulwazi ngokuxhumana. Okuxhumene phakathi nendawo noma   okunobudlelwane emigudwini yokuxhumana, okuhlanganisiwe ukuze kudluliswe noma   ukushintshana ngolwazi.
Information   Processing: The totality of scientific and   business operations performed by a computer in processing data that   represents information. It is a less-restrictive term than ‘data processing’.   Thus, it is the process of transforming data into information, but also   entails the acquisition, storage, and manipulation of information so that it   appears in a useful form.  Information   Processing: Lokhu kuchaza ukudlulisela, noma   ukuba sesimweni sokudlulisa ulwazi noma okwaziyo. Isamba sobungcweti kanye   nenqubo yamabhizinisi eyenziwa ikhompuyutha ngohlelo lokuqoqa imibiko,   izinhlelo kanye neminye imininingwane esemqoka. Loluhlelo lungasebenzisa   izinombolo noma amagama futhi lusebenza ngekhompuyutha yonke into eqoqwa   iloluhlelo iba ulwazi noma imibiko, kodwa futhi kukhombisa okuceliwe noma   okuthunyelwe, okulondoloziwe, kanye nokufihla ulwazi ngamabomu yikhona   kuzobukeka kusesimweni sokungadingeki.
information   retrieval: Recovery of stored data from a   collection for the purpose of obtaining information.  Includes all procedures used to identify,   search, find, and remove specific information or data. Techniques used to   recover specific information from large quantities of stored data.  information   retrieval: Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlwaya, ukukhipha,   ukulanda imibiko, ulwazi, izinhlelo ngohlelo lwekhompuyutha. Ukutholakala   kwemibiko, izinhlelo kanye nemininingwane ebalulekile ngokohlelo   lwekhompuyutha egciniwe kokuqoqelwe ndawonye ngesizathu ukuze kutholakale   ulwazi. Lokhu ke kuhlanganisa noma kuxube zonke izinqubo ezisetshenziswa   ekukhombeni, ekufuneni, ekutholeni kanye nokususa ulwazi noma imibiko   izinhlelo eziqokelelwa ngekhompuyutha okukhethiwe. Amasu asetshenzisiwe ukuze   kutholakale ulwazi olukhethekile enanini elikhulu lemibiko, izinhlelo   ezigciniwe.
Information   Science: The study of the generating,   acquiring, processing, storing, retrieving, disseminating and using of   information. Also described as the study of the properties of information,   i.e. its generation, transformation, communication, transfer, storage, and   use.  Information   Science: Lokhu kuchaza isifundo sobungcweti   ngolwazi lokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha. Isifundo sokwenza, ukuthola, ukuqhuba,   ukugcina, ukuhlwaya, ukusabalalisa kanye nokusebenzisa ulwazi. Kuphindwe   kwachazwa njengesifundo sezinto eziphathelene nolwazi, (isibonelo) umsuka   waso, ukuguquka, ukuxhumana, ukudlulisa, ukulondoloza, kanye nokusebenzisa.
Information   Scientists: Individuals who observe, measure,   and describe the behaviour of information, as well as those who organise   information and provide services for its use.  Information   Scientists: Lokhu kuchaza labo abafunde bagogoda   ngolwazi lwezifundo zobungcweti. Abantu abaqaphe, abakala abaphinde futhi   bachaze ukuziphatha kolwazi, kanye nalabo abalungisa noma abahlela ulwazi   bese beletha imisebenzi ngokusetshenziswa kwayo.
Information   Service Provider (ISP): An organisation   whose principal function is to provide information services or products for   the benefit of end‑users and/or intermediary organisations. Information   service providers include all libraries (i.e., public libraries, academic   libraries, etc.), clearing-houses, technical information centres, publication   units, and so on.  Information   Service Provider (ISP): Lokhu kuchaza   umuntu noma imboni enika ulwazi noma imisebenzi ethile kubantu abathile.   Iqembu elinomsebenzi osemqoka wokuletha ulwazi noma izimpahla ukuze   kusizakale labo abasebenzisa kamuva. Abalethi bemisebenzi noma usizo baxuba   yonke imitapo yezincwadi, (isibonelo imitapo yezincwadi yomphakathi, izindawo   zokufundela, kanye nokunye), izindlu zokuhlungela, izindawo zolwazi olunzulu,   izindawo zokushicilela
Information   Services: The activities (e.g. information   selection, collection, organisation, and dissemination), programmes, and   facilities by which information is made available for use.  Information   Services: Lokhu kuchaza izindlela   ezahlukahlukene zemisebenzi yokuletha ulwazi noma usizo. Izinhlelo (isibonelo   ukukhethwa kolwazi, ukuqoqwa, ukuhlela, kanye nokusabalalisa) izinhlelo kanye   nokusetshenziswa kwezinto ezenza kutholakale ulwazi.
information   system: A network of information services   providing facilities by which information and data are processed and   transmitted from originator to user. The combination of various systems with   procedures, trained users and user support and exists as a system with   operational status to support a business system or systems.  information   system: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo okungaba noma   oluyinhloboni lokuletha usizo noma ulwazi. Indlela yokuxhumana ngemisebenzi   yolwazi eletha izinto ezisiza ekuthumeleni ulwazi kanye nasekusebenziseni   uhlelo lokuqoqa izinhlelo lwekhompuyutha ezithunyelwa ukusuka lapho ziphuma   khona zithunyelwe kumsebenzisi. Inhlanganisela yezinhlobonhlobo zezinhlelo   ngezinqubo, abasebenzisi abaqeqeshiwe kanye nokusekela komsebenzisi kanye   nokuphuma njengohlelo olunesithunzi sokusebenza ukuze kuxhaseke uhlelo   lwebhizinisi noma izinhlelo.
Information   Technology (IT): Collective term   for the various technologies involved in processing and transmitting   information. Also refers to the larger set of computer products (e.g.   Operating systems, Monitors, Database Management Systems), as well as   physical hardware and network infrastructure. The application of modern   communication and computing technologies to the creation, management and use   of information. Includes technology for data base management systems, as well   as for information dissemination, such as teleprocessing systems, networks of   terminals, videotext systems, micrography, etc.  Information Technology (IT):   Lokhu kuchaza ubuchwepheshe obunzulu ngolwazi oluphathelene nokuxhumana   ikakhulukazi ngamakhompuyutha. Igama eliqoqa izinhlobonhlobo zobuhlakani   ekusebenziseni kanye nasekuthumeleni ulwazi. Lokhu futhi kususelwa eqoqweni   elikhulu lezinto zekhompuyutha (isibonelo izinhlelo zokusebenza, abaqaphi,   izinhlelo eziphatha ama database) kanye nalokho okubambekayo okwakhiwe   ngokuqinile ikhompuyutha engeke yasebenza ngaphandle kwakho ngoba kwamathumbu   ayo kanye nengqalasizinda yendlela yokuxhumana. Ukuzanywa kwezindlela   ezintsha zokuxhumana kanye nobuhlakani bamakhompuyutha ekudalweni, ukuphathwa   kanye nokusetshenziswa kolwazi. Kuxuba ubuhlakani bokuphathwa kwezinhlelo ze   database, kanye nokuhlukaniswa kolwazi, okufana nezinhlelo zokusebenza   ngothelefoni, izindlela zokuxhumana zezikhungo noma zezindawo, izinhlelo   zemibhalo ngohlelo lwe (video).
Information   Theory: Mathematical theory concerned with   the rate and accuracy of information transmission within a system as affected   by the number and width of channels, distortion, noise, etc.  Information   Theory: Lokhu kuchaza ulwazi ulususelwa   entweni owayizwa nongeke wakwazi ukuyiqinisekisa ukuthi yinto ekhona ngempela   yini noma into eyenzeka ngempela yini. Okungenaso isiqiniseko sohlelo   lwezibalo oluphathelene nezinga kanye nokuba semgqeni noma okwenziwe   ngobuchule kokuthunyelwa kolwazi ohlelweni oluthintwe isibalo noma inani   lezinombolo kanye nobubanzi bemizila, ukuphazamiseka, umsindo, kanye nokunye.
Information   Transfer: The process or result of moving   information from one point to another.  Information   Transfer: Lokhu kuchaza ukudluliswa kolwazi.   Inqubo noma umphumela wokugudluza ulwazi ukusuka kwenye indawo kuya kwenye.
information:   The meaning assigned to data, or a description of data. Knowledge concerning   some particular fact, subject, or event in any communicable form. Evaluated   and processed data.  It is the meaning   that human beings assign to data  information:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lolwazi. Incazelo enikwe i (data) noma incazelo   ye (data). Ulwazi oluphathelene namanye amaqiniso akhethiwe, isihloko, noma   uhlelo kunoma ingayiphi indlela okungase kuxhunyanwe ngayo. Uhlelo lokugcina   noma lokuqoqa ulwazi, uhlelo lwekhompuyutha oluvivinyiwe noma oluhloliwe   kanye noselusetshenzisiwe. Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi abantu banikezela kwi (data).
infrastructure:   An essential system to the public health and welfare, such as water, sewage,   electricity, currency, telecommunications capacity.  infrastructure:   Lokhu kuchaza ingqalasizinda noma uhlelo lwezidingo ezibalulekile   emphakathini. Lolu wuhlelo olubalulekile olubhekele inhlalakahle kanye   nezempilo yomphakathi, singabala -ke izidingo ezifana namanzi, indle, ugesi,   uhlobo oluthile lwemali kanye nezimo zokuxhumana.
INMARSAT: International   Maritime Satellite Organisation: a   commercial non-profit co-operative of fifty-five member states that leases,   owns, and operates a global telecommunications satellite system that provides   maritime, aeronautical, and land mobile satellite services.  INMARSAT: International   Maritime Satellite Organisation: Yinhlangano   kazwelonke yamasatellite edidiyela konke.    Inhlangano yebhizinisi eliphathelene nezezimali elingenzi inzunzo   elinama lunga angamashumi amahlanu nesihlanu ezizwe abolekayo, abanini, kanye   noku sebenzisa ngokuka zwelonke uhlelo lokuxhumana ngothelefoni lwe satellite   oluletha okuhambelana nolwandle kanye nemikhumbi, kanye nokufana noma   okwakhiwe njengamabhanoyi, kanye nemisebenzi yasemhlabeni yomahamba nendlwana   yohlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebulayo ngokujikeleza kwemisebe emkhathini   (satellite)
input:   Several input resources are necessary to offer/perform services. These input   resources include capital, staff, equipment, facilities, information,   supplies, administrative and support staff, etc. Input is considered the   application of these resources. Also refers to data or information to be   processed.  The process of transferring   data from external to internal storage.  input:   Lokhu kuchaza ulwazi oluqoqiwe lwase lugcinwa e khompuyutheni. Izinto   zokugcina ulwazi noma zokuqoqa ulwazi olugcinwa kwikhompuyutha ezimbalwa   zisemqoka ukuze zisinike noma zenze umsebenzi. Lezizinto ezigcina ulwazi   oluqoqiwe ngohlelo lwekhompuyutha zihlanganisa, noma yikuphi okokuqala noma ngabe   hlobo luni lwebhizinisi, kungaba imali, noma amathuluzi, izisebenzi,   amathuluzi, izimpahla noma izindawo zokugcina impahla ethile, abasabalalisi,   abasebenzi abaphatha ukuqhubeka kwebhizinisi kanye nabalishokile, kanye   nokunye. Ulwazi oluqoqiwe noma olungenile kumakhompuyutha luthathwa   njengokusetshenziswa kwazo lezizinto noma izindawo zokugcina ulwazi. Lokhu   kumele uhlelo lwe data noma ulwazi okufanele lusetshenziswe. Inqubo   yokudlulisela uhlelo lwe data lususwa ngaphandle luyiswa ekugcinweni ngaphandle.
Institute   of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE):   An international organisation that participates in the telecommunication   standard-setting process.  Institute   of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE):   Lokhu kuchaza izakhiwo noma indawo lapho kutholakala khona imfundo enzulu   ngolwazi oluphathelene nobunjiniyela kwezikagesi. Inhlangano kazwe lonke   ehlanganyela ngokubonisana kokubekwa kwezinhlelo ezivumelekile zokuxhumana.
integrated digital network (IDN):   A network that uses both digital transmission and digital switching.  intergrated   digital network (IDN): Lokhu kuchaza   ukuhlanganiswa kohlelo lwendlela yokuxhumana esebenza ngohlelo lwezinombolo.   Indlela yokuxhumana esebenzisa izinombolo lapho ithumela noma ishintsha.
Integrated   Services Digital Network (ISDN): A   telecommunications standard envisioning interconnected digital networks   capable of simultaneous delivery of voice and data services.  Intergrated   Services Digital Network (ISDN): Lokhu   kuchaza ukuhlanganiswa kwemisebenzi yohlelo olusebenzisa izinombolo lwendlela   yokuxhumana.  Izinga lokuxhumana elenza   kube nokucabanga kokuxhunywa kwezintambo zokuxhumana ngezinombolo ezingakwazi   ukuletha kanyekanye izidingo zamazwi kanye nemininingwane.
intellectual   property: A collective term used to refer to   new ideas, inventions, designs, writings, films and others; protected by   copyright, patents, trade-marks, etc.  intellectual   property: Lokhu kuchaza Igama eihlanganisa   konke elisetshenziselwa ukubhekisa kuleyo mibono emisha, okusunguliwe,   imidwebo, imibhalo, izithombe kanye nokunye, okuvikelwe ukuze kungakopelwa   noma kungabukelwa njengo kuvikelwa kohlobo oluthile lomaka ofakwa empahleni   ethile uma idayiswa kanye nokunye.
Intelligent   Network: The architecture and plans for a   future telecommunications infrastructure with advanced features made possible   by expanded network switching, signal processing and intelligence.  Intelligent   Network: Lokhu kuchaza ubuhlakani bohlelo   lwendlela yokuxhumana. Imidwebo kanye nezinhlelo ezenzelwe ukuxhumana   kwezingqalasizinda esikhathini esizayo. Zingaba nezimpawu ezisezingeni   eliphezulu ezenziwe ngendlela yokuthi kube lula ukuthi zinwetshwe   ngokushintshwa kwezindlela zokuxhumana ukuthunyelwa kwezimpawu (signals)   kanye nobuhlakani.
INTELSAT: International   Telecommu-nications Satellite Organisation:  a commercial non-profit co-operative of 115   countries that owns and operates the global communications satellite system   used by countries around the world for international communications and by   more than 25 countries for domestic communications.  INTELSAT: International   Telecommu-nications Satellite Organisation:   Lokhu kuchaza igama noma kumele igama lenhlangano ephethe izinhlelo   zokuxhumana ezihlukahlukene. Ukuhweba okungenanzuzo okuhlanganise amazwe agu   115 okuyiwona asebenzisa izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezweni lonke ngendlela ye   (satellite) esetshenziswa amazwe azungeze umhlaba ukuze kube nokuxhumana   ezweni lonke. Kukhona futhi amanye amazwe anga phezu kuka 25 asebenzisa   lezizinhlelo zokuxhumana ngaphakathi noma ekhaya.
interactive   system: A system that allows dynamic   communication (or feedback) between a human and a machine as a means of   operational control or modification.  interactive   system: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluvumela   ukuthi kube nokuxhumana okwanelisayo phakathi komuntu kanye nomshini   njengendlela yokuphatha imisebenzi noma ukuyilungisa.
interactive:   The ability of users to request, manipulate, process, and change data through   online commands. Interactivity converts one-way information sources into   two-way media.  interactive:   Lokhu kuchaza ikhono lalabo abasebenzisa okuthile kokuthi bacele, baphathe,   benze, babuye bashintshe uhlelo oluqukethe imininingwane yekhompuyutha   ngendlela yokuthola lokho okufunwa ngesikhathi. Ukuhlela kwangaphakathi   kushintsha ukuthunyelwa kolwazi ngendlela eyodwa ikuyise kuleyondawo   esebenzisa ukuxhumana ngezindlela ezimbili.
Inter-American   Telecommunications Conference (CITEL):   An assembly of nations that participate in the Organisation of American   States, with a mission to address radio and telecommunications issues,   including ones to be addressed by upcoming conferences of the ITU.  Inter-American   Telecommunications Conference (CITEL):   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano yezizwe ehlanganyela ekuhlelweni kwamazwe ase Melika   ngenhloso yokubheka lezozindaba eziphathelene nokusakaza kanye nokuxhumana,   nokufaka lezo okusuke kuzoxoxiswana ngazo kuleyo mihlangano ye International   Telecommunication Union esuke isazoba khona.
interconnect:   The physical connection of equipment and lines to secure a complete route and   service arrangement. Users physically interconnect CPE to a   telecommunications network through a plug physically attached to a jack.  interconnect:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhuma phakathi nendawo. Ukuxhunywa ngezandla kwamathuluzi   kanye nemizila. Lokhu kwenzelwa ukuvikela lezozindlela eziphelele kanye   nokuhlelwa kwezidingo abazisebenzisayo lapho bexhuma i CPE kulezo zinhlelo   zokuxhumana ngendlela yohlelo lokuxhuma odongeni ngesandla, enamathele kulelo   thuluzi lokuphakamisa imoto.
interconnection   charge: Carriers normally charge enhanced   service providers (VANS) a basic interconnection charge to recover the costs   of the interconnection facilities (including the hardware and software for   routing, signalling, and other basic service functions) needed to provide   enhanced services using basic network functions.  interconnection   charge: Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezibizwa   izithwali ekuxhumaniseni okuba sezingeni elingcono ngaphakathi. Izithuthi   zivame ukukhokhisa labo ababhekene nezidingo ezandiselwe imali yokuxhuma   ukuze bakwazi ukuthola lezo zindleko zezidingo zokuxhumana kungaba yilokho   okuthwala izinhlelo zekhompuyutha kanye nalokho okuyizintambo ezixhunywe   kumakhompuyutha ukuze zithumele, zikhombe, nokwenza neminye imisebenzi   ebhekene nezidingo ezisemqoka. Konke lokhu kwenzelwa ukuthi kubhekane nalezo   zidingo ezandisiwe ezisebenzisa imisebenzi yokuxhumana yokuqala.
Interexchange   Carrier (IXC): A provider of long-haul   telecommunication services. In the US, a carrier authorised by the Federal   Communications Commission (FCC) or a state public utility commission to   provide long-distance telecommunications services between local access and   transport areas (LATAs).  Interexchange   Carrier (IXC): Lokhu kuchaza lokho okuphathelene nokushintshisana   ngaphakathi.  Izintambo zokuxhumana   ezihamba ibanga elide eMelika. Loluhlobo lwezokuxhumana lugunyazwa yiFederal   Communications Commission (FCC) noma inkampani yezokuthutha egunyaza   uHulumeni ukuthi anikezele izintambo zokuxhumana emabangeni amade ahlanganisa   nezinto zokuthutha.
interexchange carrier (IXC):   A communications common carrier that provides telecommunications services   between LATAs (Local Access and Transport Areas) or between exchanges within   the same LATA. Interexchange carriers have usually relied on local exchange   carriers or competitive access providers for the local origination and   termination of their traffic.  interexchange   carrier (IXC): Lokhu kuchaza isithwali sohlelo   lokushintshana ngaphakathi ohlelweni oluthile lokuxhumana. Isithuthi   sezokuxhumana esibhekela izidingo zokuxhumana phakathi kokushintshisana   ngaphakathi kwe”LATA”. Ukushintshisana kwezithuthi kuhlale   kuthembele kulezozithuthi ezishintshisana ngaphakathi noma lokho okubhekela   amalungelo okuncintisana. Lokhu kwenzelwa ukuthi kuqalwe kubuye kuqedwe   ukuminyana kuleyondawo abakuyo.
interexchange   rates: Rates charged for measured and   flat-rate interexchange services based on the distance between rate   centres.  interexchange   rates: Lokhu kuchaza izindleko zokuxhumana   ngohlelo olushintshanisa ngaphakathi. Inani lazo litholakala ngokubala intela   engashintshi edingekayo ukuze kuxhunyaniswe izindawo.
interexchange   telecommunications: Long-haul services   that link local exchanges providing those interexchange services that cross   local access and transport boundaries.  interexchange   telecommunications: Lokhu kuchaza   ukushintshana ngaphakathi kohlelo lwezokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Ezokuxhumana   zamabanga amade ezihlanganisa izindawo ezisondelene eziphakela izindawo eziqhelile   nemingcele kwezokuthutha.
interexchange:   Relating to services and channels between or among two or more exchanges,   rate centres, or local access and transport areas (LATA) or to carriers   providing such services and channels.  interexchange:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushintshana ngaphakathi ohlelweni lokuxhumana. Lokhu   kuphathelene nezidingo kanye nemigudu phakathi kokushintshanisa okubili noma   ngaphezulu, izikhungo zentela ilungelo lasekhaya kanye nezindawo   eziphathelene nezinto zokuhamba (LATA) noma izithuthi ezibhekele lezozidingo   kanye nemigudu ezingahamba kuyo.
interface:   The junction between two devices; e.g. the central processor and a peripheral   device that exchanges information in a controlled manner. A shared boundary,   for example, between CPE and the telecommunication plant owned and operated   by a telephone company.  interface:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthintana noma ukuxhumana ngokusebenzisana phakathi kwezinto   ezithile. Ukuhlangana kwezinto ezimbili njengemishini edidiyela ezokuxhumana,   nomshini ohambisa ulwazi ngendlela ekaliwe. Lokhu futhi kungasho umngcele   osetshenziselwa ezokuxhumana enkampanini kanye nezincingo ezisetshenziswa   yizinkampani.
Intermediate   Circular Orbit (ICO): The installation   of satellites into non-geostationary orbits closer to Earth to support   applications using small, low-powered handheld terminals.  Intermediate   Circular Orbit (ICO): Lokhu kuchaza   ukujikeleza okwenzeka kanyekanye phakati kwendilinga kanye nezinye izinto   ezihlala emkhathini. Ukufakelwa kwamasatellite emkhathini eduze nomhlaba.   Ukuphakela ukusebenza kwemishini, amakhompuyutha aphathwa ngezandla.
internal   rate of return: The discount rate that makes equal   to zero the present value of benefits resulting from a project, net of the   costs incurred to produce these benefits. Cost and benefit streams are   usually derived from financial statements (actual and forecast payments and   receipts) expressed in constant-value currency (that is, net of project   inflation).  internal   rate of return: Lokhu kuchaza izinga noma inani   langaphakathi loku buyiswayo. Isaphulelo sentela esenziwe salingana nento   engekho lapho kuqhathaniswa nezinga lamalungelo amanje asuke ewumphumela   waleyo projekthi kanye nenani lalezo zindleko ezitholakele. Izindleko kanye   nalokho okutholakele kususelwa emabhukwini ezimali. Izimali ezisakhokhwa   nezinqunyelwe ukukhokhwa noma ezinqunyelwe ukungena emabhukwini. Izindleko   zezimali, ukuncipha kwamandla emali akubalelwe kulokhu.
internal   storage: Memory, addressable storage areas   considered an integral part of the computer directly controlled by the   central processing unit (CPU). High speed ferrite-core, thin-film, or   plated-wire storage areas.  internal   storage: Lokhu kuchaza okugcinwe ngaphakathi.   Ingxenye yekhompuyutha egcina ulwazi.    Iphethwe yindawo elawula ukugcinwa kolwazi.  Lezizindawo zisebenza ngamandla asheshayo.   Zenziwe ngocingo olugoqekile olugcina ulwazi.
international   comity: Recognition that each nation has   sovereignty and that mutually beneficial results accrue when nations   relinquish a degree of independent decision making to reach a single   consensus policy.  international   comity: Lokhu kuchaza ukuvumela amazwe   enkululekweni yawo ukuze akwazi ukuzisungulela imithetho ethile. Ukubonelela   noma ukwazisa zonke izizwe ezizimele ukuthi ukubonisana ezintweni ezithize   kuyazisiza ukuze zikwazi ukubambisana ngalokho okungenza ukuthi bafinyelele   esivumelwaneni esisodwa.
International   Frequency Registration Board (IFRB):   The part of the ITU’s radio-communications sector, now known as the Radio Regulation   Board, that registers spectrum and orbital arc uses and resolves potential   interference problems.  International   Frequency Registration Board (IFRB):   Lokhu kuchaza ibhodi noma inhlangano kazwelonke ephathelene nokubhaliswa   kwezinhlelo zokuphindaphinda ekuxhumaneni ngohlelo oluthile. Ingxenye   yezokuxhumana ngomsakazo exhaswe yinhlangano eshaya imithetho yezokusakaza.   Umsebenzi wayo ukuqikelela ukuthi kungabi khona ukuthikamezeka   kwezokuthinteka ngezomoya.
International   Maritime Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT):   A co-operative of over 70 nations organised to provide ubiquitous maritime   services, including safety and distress functions. The parties of Inmarsat   recently endorsed an expanded function to include aeronautical and land   mobile services on an ancillary basis.  International   Maritime Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT):   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele igama lenhlangano ephathelene nezokuxhumana   ngohlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe olusemkhathini oluhamba ngomoya.   Inhlangano yebhizinisi esebenza ngokubambisana nezizwe ezingaphezu kwamashumi   ayisikhombisa eyahlelelwa ekutheni ilethe izidingo noma usizo ekubeni khona   yonke indawo ngasosonke isikhathi okuhambelana nolwandle kanye nemikhumbi.   Izinhlangano zohlelo lokuxhumana olubizwa nge (Inmarsat) maduze nje zisayine   noma zivumelene ngokunwetshwa komsebenzi ukuze kuxutshwe okufana nokwakhiwe   futhi kwaqoshwa noma kwadwetshwa njenge zindiza mkhathi kanye nemisebenzi   noma usizo oluhambahambayo olungamile ndawonye ezweni ngezisekelo ezincane.
International   Message Telephone Service (IMTS): Conventional   dial-up international long-distance telephone service.  International   Message Telephone Service (IMTS): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana ngothelefoni ezweni.  Inhlangano noma ukuhlangana emisebenzini   yokushaya uthelefoni ibanga elide.
International   Record Carrier (IRC): International   carriers that concentrated on providing textual services such as telegraphs   and telexes.  International   Record Carrier (IRC): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lwendlela yokuxhumana ngokuthwala umlayezo osesimweni esingafani noma   obhalwe ngezindlela ezahlukene. Izithwali zomhlaba ezibhekene nemisebenzi   yokuletha okuyimiqingo ebhaliwe efana nokuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo ngohlelo   olusheshayo kwamanye amazwe ibanga elide lokhu kungenzeka ngohlelo lukagesi   noma lungasebenza ngezimpawu ezingathunyelwa ngokuxhumana ngomsakazo okuthi   umangabe lemiyalezo ifika lapho iyakhona iphume isiyimiqingo ebhaliwe.
International   Settlements Policy (ISP): An FCC policy   requiring all US carriers to apply identical accounting and settlement rates   for IMTS. The FCC considers the ISP essential to prevent foreign carriers   from “whipsawing” US carriers.  International   Settlements Policy (ISP): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lomthetho othile obekelwe ukufeza noma ukugcina izivumelwano ezithile.   Loluhlelo lwemithetho oludinga ukuthi zonke izithwali noma izithuthi zamazwe   aphesheya nezilwandle e US zisebenzise izinhlelo zokuphathwa kwezimali   ezifanayo kanye namazinga okukhokhwa kwezikweletu zikhokhelwa i IMTS.   Inhlangano ibe isilandela noma ibhekisise ukubaluleka kwaloluhlelo   lwemithetho ekuvimbeleni izithwali noma izithuthi zamanye amazwe ekutheni   zigebenge izithwali zaphesheya nezilwandle e US.
International   Standards Organisation (ISO): A   specialised agency of the United Nations with a broad standard-setting   portfolio that includes data processing.  International   Standards Organisation (ISO): Lokhu kumele   igama lophiko lenhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo ephathelene nohlelo   lokuxhumana. Uphiko lwenhlangano noma lwabakhethelwe ukubhekana nesimo   abaqeqeshelwe lona loluphiko lwenhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo esungula   iziphakamiso, imithetho, kanye nemibono ekuxhumaneni ngothelefoni,   okuhlanganisa ukubekwa kohlelo lokunikezela ngokungafani nangokungalingani lombhalo   ophedukayo noma ojikelezayo wohlobo lwemizila emihle ejikeleza ngaphandle   ekwenzeni indingilizi (satellite), ukuthuthuka kwezokuxhumana ngocingo,   okusezingeni eliphezulu elivumelekile, nokuvinjwa koqhekeko kanye   nezisombululo.
International   Telecommunication Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT):   A co-operative of over 120 nations organised to provide ubiquitous   international satellite capacity.  International   Telecommunication Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT):   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele igama lenhlangano yezizwe ebekelwe ukubhekana   nohlelo lokuxhumana lwe (satellite). Ukusebenza ngokubambisana kwezizwe   ezingaphezu kwekhulu namashumi amabili ezihlelelwe ukuletha ukutholakala   yonke indawo ngesikhathi esisodwa emhlabeni kwesisindo noma kwezinga lohlelo   lokuxhumana oluthwebula ngokujikeleza emkhathini futhi oluhamba emoyeni   (satellite).
International   Telecommunications Union (ITU): A   specialised agency of the United Nations that formulates policy, regulations,   and recommendations in telecommunications, including spectrum allocation,   satellite orbital arc registration, telecommunication development, standard   setting, and conflict avoidance and resolution.  International   Telecommunications Union (ITU): Lokhu kuchaza inyunyana noma inhlangano   yamazwe omhlaba elawula noma ephethe ezokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Uphiko noma   imboni yenhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo ebhekene kuphela nokusungulwa noma   ukwakhiwa kwamacebo, imibono, imithetho, kanye neziphakamiso ezinhlelweni   zokuxhumana ngothelefoni, lokhu kuhlanaganisa ukubekwa noma ukunikezwa indawo   uhlelo lokuxhumana olusebenza ngokungalingani nangokungafani, ukubhaliswa   noma ukubekwa kohlelo oluthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini   endingilizini yomjikelezo, ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokuxhumana   ngothelefoni, ukulungisa okusezingeni elivumelekile, kanye nokuvimba uqhekeko   noma ukungazwani kanye nesivumelwano.
International   Telecommunictions Users Group (INTUG):   A trade association of international telecommunication users.  International   Telecommunications Users Group (INTUG):   Lokhu kumele igama lenhlangano yamazwe exhumana ngenxa yesizathu esithile.   Ithuba noma isikhathi sokuthengisa kwabasebenzisi bezokuxhumana ngocingo   emhlabeni.
International   Telegraph And Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT):   Committee of the ITU reformulated in 1993 with portions of its portfolio   assigned to the newly formed radio communications and telecommunications   standards sectors.  International   Telegraph And Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT):   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele igama lekomiti ephathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana.   Ikomiti ye ITU eyashintshwa ngeminyaka yawo 1993 kwabe sekuthi izingxenye   zayo zanikwa uhlelo olusha olusanda kusungulwa lokuxhumana ngemisakazo kanye   nokuxhumana ngothelefoni ezinkampanini ezisezingeni elamukelekile.
International   Value-Added Network (IVAN): An enterprise that   enhances leased private lines with customised features (e.g. credit card   verification and airline reservation systems).  International   Value-Added Network (IVAN): Lokhu kuchaza noma   kumele inhlangano yosozimboni noma ibhizinisi elithuthukisa imizila noma   olayini bangasese noma abayimfihlo ababolekiwe abahluke ngendlela ethile   (isibonelo ukubhekwa kwesiqiniseko ngamakhadi okukweleta (credit cards) kanye   nezinhlelo zokubekelwa indawo emabhanoyini).
Internet protocol (IP):   A standard protocol designed for use in interconnected systems of   packet-switched computer communication networks. The Internet protocol   provides for transmitting blocks of data called datagrams from sources   to destinations, where sources and destinations are hosts identified by   fixed-length addresses. The Internet protocol also provides for fragmentation   and reassembly of long datagrams, if necessary, for transmission   through small-packet networks.  Internet   protocol (IP): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwemithetho   yokusetshenziswa kohlelo lokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha olusebenzisa umshini   obizwa nge modem odinga ukuthi uxhunywe kuthelefoni ukuze usebenze. Uhlelo   lwemithetho ejwayele ukusetshenziswa eyenzelwe ukusetshenziswa ezinhlelweni   ezixhumene phakathi nendawo ezincane futhi ezishintshiwe noma ezivulelwe   zezindlela zokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha. Lemithetho ye (internet protocol)   noma uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokusebenzisa amakhompuyutha axhumene nesixhumanisi   (i modem) ebuye yaxhunywa kuthelefoni iletha uhlelo lokuthumela   oluyiziqeshana zohlelo lokuqoqa izinhlelo, kanye nokunye okusemqoka   olusebenza ngekhompuyutha olubizwa nge (datagrams) olusuka ezikhumulweni noma   ezizindeni kuze kuyofika ezindaweni ezithile, lapho izizinda noma izikhumulo   kanye nalapho kuyiswa khona ziba abagcini noma abaphathi balo loluhlelo zibe   sezibonakala noma zihlukaniseka ngama kheli angashintshi futhi amade.   Lomthetho we (internet protocol) noma owokusetshenziswa kohlelo lokuxhumana   ngamakhompuyutha axhumene nesixhumanisi esibizwa nge (modem) exhunywa   kuthelefoni ukuze loluhlelo lusebenze, loluhlelo luletha ngokuhlukahlukene   kanye nangokuhlanganisa kwi (datagrams) noma isikali sohlelo oluthwala   imininingwane, izinhlelo ezisebenza ngekhompuyutha, uma kunesidingo,   ngokuthumela ngohlelo oluncane lokuxhumana.
Internet:   A vast international network of networks that enables computers of all kinds   to share services and communicate directly. A multi-faceted international   network of databases and e-mail users organised initially for military,   scientific, and academic users.  Internet:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana loluhlelo olusebenza ngekhompuyutha exhunywe   ngokusebenzisana nokusamshinyana (modem) futhi okuxhunywe ngokusebenzisana   nothelefoni ukuze loluhlelo lusebenze kahle. Udedangendlale wendlela   yokuxhumana umhlaba wonke ngezindlela zokuxhumana ezikwazi ukwenza lonke   uhlobo lwamakhompuyutha ukuthi ahlukaniselane imisebenzi kanye nokuthi akwazi   ukuxhumana ngqo noma ngokuqondile. Indlela ehlukahlukene ngokungafani   yokuxhumana emhlabeni yokuqoqwa kolwazi, izinhlelo, kanye nokunye   okubalulekile kanye nabasebenzisi be e-mail abahlela ezempi, izidingo   ezisemqoka, ezobungcweti besayensi, kanye nabasebenzisela izifundo ezithile.
InterSatellite   Links (ISL): Extremely high-frequency   communication links between satellites that substitute for a round trip from   a satellite down to an Earth station and back up to another satellite.    InterSatellite   Links (ISL): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   phakathi ngobudlelwano bezinhlelo zokuxhumana ngokuthwebula kohlobo lwemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini (satellite). Ukuphindaphinda ngokuxhumana okuphezulu   ngempela okuhlanganiswe phakathi kwendlela yokuxhumana ngokuthwebula kohlobo   lwemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini (satellite) eshintsha noma esebenza   esikhundleni senye ngomjikelezo wohambo ukusuka kulesisi xhumanisi   (satellite) ukuya phansi esikhungweni somhlaba kanye nokuya emuva phezulu   kwesinye isixhumanisi (satellite).
InterSputnik:   An international satellite co-operative organised by the former Soviet   Union.    InterSputnik:   Lokhu kumele igama lenhlangano ephathelene nohlelo lokuxhumana yamazwe   ngamazwe eyahlelwa inhlanganisela yamazwe aphesheya kwezilwandle ayebizwa nge   Soviet Union. Inhlangano yomhlaba ebambisene ngohlelo lokuxhumana lwe   (satellite) eyaphesheya nezilwandle eyahlelwa izwe elalaziwa ngeSoviet Union.
intra-LATA:   Relating to telecommunications services that originate and terminate in the   same local access and transport areas (LATA), jurisdictions within which Bell   operating companies (BOC) may provide telephone service.  intra-LATA:   Lokhu kumele igama lolunye uhlelo lokuxhumana. Kufaniswa nemisebenzi   yezokuxhumana ngothelefoni eqhamuka noma ephuma kanye neqedwe ekuphumeleleni   okufanayo kwangaphakathi endaweni ethile kanye nasezindaweni zokuhamba   ngamasondo (LATA), imingcele engaphakathi okufanele izimboni ezisebenza nge   Bell (BOC) zilethe imisebezi noma usizo lothelefoni.
INTUG: International   Telecommuni-cations Users Group: an   organisation formed in Brussels in 1974 to promote the interests of   telecommunications users internationally.  INTUG: International   Telecommuni-cations Users Group: Lokhu   kumele igama lenhlangano ephathelene nohlelo lwezokuxhumana. Iqembu noma   inhlangano eyaqalwa phesheya nezilwandle ezweni lase Brussels ngeminyaka yo   1974 ekuphakamiseni noma ekusekeleni ukukhombisa ukuba nothando noma   ukulangazelela kokusetshenziswa kokuxhumana ngothelefoni kwabasebenzisi   emhlabeni.
inverted   file: File organisation in which a record   consists of a descriptor or key word followed by all documents or document   numbers described by that term.  inverted file:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lokugcina imibhalo, izinhlelo, kanye nokunye   okusemqoka embonini ethile. Uhlelo lokugcina izinhlelo, noma imininingwane   esemqoka okuthi lapho phakathi kube imininingwane echazayo noma igama   elisemqoka elilandelwa iyo yonke imibhalo esemaphepheni noma emabhukwini   amancane noma izinombolo zalamabhuku ezichazwe yigama noma into ethile.
IRU: Indefeasible   right of use: an arrangement between an owner of   physical international communications circuits and a buyer, under which the   buyer purchases an absolute right of access to international circuits.  IRU: Indefeasible right of use:   Lokhu kuchaza isivumelwano phakathi komnini wokuthintekayo noma okuphathekayo   kwalokho okuthwala amandla ezokuxhumanisa ukuxhumana emazweni kanye   nomthengi, okuthi lapho umthengi ethenge isivumelwano sangempela esingeke   siguquke esiyimvume yokusebenzisa okuthwala amandla kumazwe ngamazwe.
ISDN: Integrated   Services Digital Network: a set of digital   telecommunications network standards.  ISDN: Integrated   Services Digital Network: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuhlanganiswa kosizo noma imisebenzi esebenza ngohlelo   oluyizinombolo lokuxhumana ehlanganiswe ndawonye. Iqoqwana lohlelo   lokuxhumana olujwayelekile olusebenzisa izinombolo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni.
ITU: International   Telecommunication Union: the specialised   agency of the United Nations responsible for international telecommunication   matters. Its functions include the regulation and planning of international   telecommunications, the establishment of equipment and systems operating   standards, the co-ordination and dissemination of information required for   the planning and operation of telecommunications services, and the promotion   of the contribution to the development of telecommunications and related   infrastructure.  ITU: International   Telecommunication Union: Lokhu kuchaza   noma kumele inhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo ephethe uhlelo lokuxhumana. Uphiko   lwenhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo olubekelwe ukubhekana nezindaba   eziphathelene nokuxhumana emazweni ngohlelo lothelefoni. Umsebenzi wayo   uhlanganisa imithetho okufanele ilandelwe kanye nokuhlelwa kokuxhumana   ngothelefoni ezweni, ukusungulwa kwamathuluzi noma izinto kanye nezinhlelo   ezijwayelekile zokusebenza noma zokuxhumana, ukuhlanganisa kanye   nokusabalalisa ulwazi oludingekayo ekuhleleni kanye nasekusetshenzisweni   kwemisebenzi yokuxhumana ngothelefoni, kanye nasekuphakanyisweni noma   ekugqugquzelweni kokunikela ekuthuthukisweni kokuxhumana ngothelefoni kanye   nengqalasizinda esondelene naloluhlelo.
IVAN: International   value-added network. Basically,   value-added services (VANs) provided on an international basis.  IVAN: International   value-added network: Lokhu kuchaza   ukwengezwa noma ukugcwalisela kohlelo lokuxhumana ezweni. Ngokujwayelekile,   imisebenzi noma usizo olwengeziwe (VANs) ezweni

 

J
 
just-in-time   manufacturing: A manufacturing technique that   depends heavily on very accurate and timely communication with suppliers to   ensure that supplies are shipped to arrive exactly when they are needed.  just-in-time   manufacturing: Lokhu kuchaza ukwenziwa noma   ukwakhiwa kwento ethile ngesikhathi. Isu lokukhiqiza elithembele kanzima   ebucikweni obusezingeni eliphezulu kanye nokuxhumana ngesikhathi naba   sabalalisi ukuze kubenesiqiniseko sokuthi abasabalalisi bayahanjiswa   ngemikhumbi ukuze bafike ngesikhathi uma bedingeka
K
 
KA-band:   That relatively unused portion of the radio spectrum (30-GHz uplink/20-GHz   downlink) allocated for new satellite requirements.  KA-band:   Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo sesithwali mandla okumukela komsakazo ngohlelo   lokungafani nokungalingani. Yileyo ngxenye engasetshenziswa kwezokuxhumana   ngezomoya ebekelwe izidingo ezintsha zesatellite.
Key   Escrow Policy: Refers to a United States policy   concerning the technology that has been developed to address the concern that   widespread use of encryption would make lawfully authorised electronic   surveillance more difficult. Involves granting designated third parties   special keys needed for law enforcement agencies to gain access, under court   warrant, to encrypted communications or transactions.  Key   Escrow Policy: Lokhu kuchaza umthetho wezwe   laphesheya kwezilwandle e Melika ophathelene nokusetshenziswa kwemibhalo   eyimfihlo. Kuqondiswe kwinqubo yaseMelika mayelana nobuchwepheshe obubhekele   izintambo ezivimbayo ezenza kube lukhuni ukungenela imishini yamakhompuyutha   nezinto eziphakathi. Imayelana nokunikezela izikhiye zokungena kwabezomthetho   lapho begunyazwa umthetho ukuthi bangene engosini yezinto eziyimfihlo   zenkampani.
key   system: A business communication system   which provides common access to a number of central office trunks from   multi-button telephone sets, and allows communication between sets over   private intercom lines, by pressing a key associated with that trunk or   line.  key   system: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo olusemqoka   lwendlela ethile yokuxhumana. Indlela yebhizinisi yokuxhumana enikeza noma   egunyaza ngokujwayelekile ukungena kulelo gunya elibhekele izintambo   zethelefoni ezihlanganisa izindawo eziqhelelene. Ibuye futhi igunyaze   ukuxhumana ngendlela ye-“intercom “ngokucindezela inkinobho   eqondene nalabo layini.
keypunch:   A keyboard-actuated device that punches holes in a card to represent   data.  keypunch:   Lokhu kuchaza umshini ochafazwa ngeminwe “keyboard” egqobhoza   izimbobo ekhadini kumbe ukudlulisa imininingwane ebhaliwe.
keyword:   Grammatical element that conveys the significant meaning in a document; word   indicating a subject discussed in a document.  keyword:   Lokhu kuchaza Igama elikhombisa ukuthi kukhulunywa ngani endabeni ebhaliwe,   igama eliyisihloko endabeni noma eligqamile endabeni.
kilohertz   (KHz): A measurement of radio waves equal to   1 000 cycles per second.  kilohertz(KHz):   Lokhu kuchaza isikali sokuthumela ukumukela komsakazo (radio wave). Isikali   sezomoya esilinganisa ijubane lenkulumo ehamba ngezomoya. Silingana nokujika   kankulungwane ngomzuzu.
KU-band:   An increasingly-used portion of the radio spectrum (14-GHz uplink/11- to   12-GHz downlink) allocated for satellite requirements.  KU-band:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye esisebenza kakhulu kwezokuxhumana ngemisakazo yohlelo   lokungalingani nokungafani lokuthumela. Inikezela izidingo zokuxhumana   ngesatellite ngange 14-GHz ukwenyuka -kuya ku 11 no 12 GHz ukwehla.

 

L
 
LAN: Local Area   Network: a private data network in which   serial transmission is used without store and forward techniques for direct   data communication among stations located within the user’s premises.   Typically a privately-owned digital communications system that provides a   high-speed link among a variety of devices (generally computer terminals,   microcomputers, or minicomputers) on a single shared medium, usually over a   distance of up to two kilometres on the user’s premises.  LAN: Local Area   Network: Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana kolayini   basekhaya noma abakhelene. Uchungechunge lwezintambo ezihambisa inkulumo noma   okubhaliwe lapho ukuthumela ezokuxhumana kuthinta iziteshi zabasebenzisi   bamakhompuyutha abaningi bedidiyelwe endaweni eyodwa. Ivamise ukuba   ukusetshenziswa yinkampani ethize, iyindlela esheshayo exhumanisa inkulumo   noma okubhalwe kumakhompuyutha ebangeni elingaba amakhilomitha athi awabe   mabili.
LATA: Local area   and transport access: one of the 161   local telephone serving areas in the United States, established as a result   of the Bell divestiture.  LATA: Local area   and transport access: Lokhu kuchaza   indawo yangaphakathi yezinhlelo zokuxhumana kanye nokutholakala kwezinto   zokuhamba. Ukuxhumana kolayini basekhaya kanye neyodwa ezintanjeni eziyikhulu   namashumi ayisithupha zezintambo zezingcingo eziphakela elaseMelika ezenziwa   yinkampani yakwa Bell.
layered system:   A system in which components are grouped (i.e. layered) in an hierarchical   arrangement, such that lower layers provide functions and services that   support the functions and services of higher layers.  layered   system: Lokhu kuchaza uchungechunge   lwezingxenye zezintambo zokuxhumana ezihlanganiswe ngendlela esukela   emazingeni aphansi aseka ukusebenza kwamazinga aphezulu.
L-BAND:   That portion of the frequency band (1-3GHz) where a variety of mobile   services are provided by geostationary and LEO satellites.  L-BAND:   Lokhu kuchaza leyongxenye yezokuxhumana ngezomoya eyenza abantu bakwazi   ukuxhumana ngezincingo ezingomahamba nendlwana amafoni bephakelwa   yi-satellite.
leaky   PBX: The ability of users to interconnect   on-premises equipment to the public switched telecommunications network,   thereby linking private lines designed to link two points only with often   unmetered switched local services.  leaky   PBX: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo olusebenza   ngezandla lomzila wokuthumela izinhlelo zokuxhumana ngaphakathi ongakwazi   ukuxhuma ezinye izinhlelo zokuxhumana emzileni ongenakho lokho okubala   izindleko. Yikhono lokuthi labo abasebenzisa ikhompuyutha bakwazi ukuxhumana   bekulezozindawo zabo, ukungena kumakhompuyutha kawonkewonke, ezinye izindawo,   izinkampani ezisebenzisa olayini nezindawo ezimbili ezixhumanisa nezinye   izidingo.
lease:   The conveyance of the right to use an asset by one person (the lessor) to   another (the lessee) for a specified period of time in return for rent.  lease:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluyisivumelwano sokuboleka. Kungaba ukubolekwa kwemoto   embonini ethile yezimoto.  Imvume noma   ilungelo elibhalwe phansi futhi esayinwe abaphathi bomthetho enika imvume   noma ilungelo ukuze kusetshenziswe ithuluzi elithile umuntu oyedwa (lessor   umboleki) ko munye (the lessee umbolekisi) lempahla izosetshenziswa   ngesikhathi esithile esikhundleni sokukhokhwa kwemali yokuqasha.
leased circuit:   Dedicated common-carrier facilities and channel equipment used by a network   to furnish exclusive private line service to a specific user or group of   users.  leased   circuit: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluyisivumelwano   ekubolekiseni ngesithwali mandla kagesi noma isikhumulo, noma isikhungo   esithwala amandla kagesi.  Izinto,   izindawo zezithuthi ezizinikele ezejwayelekile kanye nemigudu noma imizila   yamathuluzi okusetshenziswa indlela yokuxhumana ekuletheni ngokwekhethelo   usizo lwemizila yangasese noma eyimfihlo kumsebenzisi othile noma iqulu   labasebenzisi.
leased   line: A communications facility that is   provided exclusively to the user for a flat monthly charge.  leased   line: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluyisivumelwano   ekubolekiseni ngomzila noma umgudu. Ithuluzi noma indawo yokuxhumana   eyenzelwe noma elethelwe kuphela umsebenzisi okhipha izindleko ezifanayo   nyangazonke.
Least-Developed   Countries: Some thirty-six of the world’s   poorest countries as defined by the United Nations.  Least-Developed Countries:   Lokhu kuchaza isibalo samazwe asathuthukayo. Lawa amanye amazwe omhlaba   angamashumi amathathu nesithupha adla imbuya ngothi njengoba echazwa   inhlangano yezizwe ezihlangeneyo.
LEC: Local   exchange carrier: a term used in   the United States to describe carriers providing local service and including   Bell operating companies (BOCs) after divestiture.  LEC: Local   exchange carrier: Lokhu kuchaza   isithwali sokushintshanisa sangaphakathi ezweni lakithi. Igama elisetshenziswa   ezweni eliphesheya kwezilwandle lase Melika elibizwa nge United States   ukuchaza izithwali noma izithuthi zangaphakathi kulelozwe ekuletheni izidingo   kanye nokuhlanganisa izimboni ezibizwa nge Bell operating companies (BOCs)   ngemuva kokuthathwa kwezinye izinto ngokwezomnotho.
Lesser-Developed   Country (LDC): A classification of nations with   economies and telecommunications infrastructure below that of industrialised   nations; also known as newly   industrialised nations.  Lesser-Developed   Country (LCD): Lokhu kuchaza izwe elithuthuke   kancane uma liqhathaniswa nelinye. Ukuhlukaniswa ngokuchazwa kwezizwe   ezinomnotho kanye nengqalasizinda yokuxhumana ngothelefoni engaphansi   kweyezizwe ezithuthukile ngokwezimboni futhi lokhu kwaziwa noma sekubizwa   kabusha nge (industrialised nations) izizwe ezithuthukile noma eseziphuculwe   uhlelo lwezimboni.
level   competitive playing field: The goal of   market entrants who claim that regulators and other decision makers must take   affirmative steps to reduce unfair market access opportunities accruing to   incumbent carriers as a function of their earlier market entry, bottleneck   control, customer base, and regulatory status.  level   competitive playing field: Lokhu kuchaza   ukulingana ekudlalweni kwendima yokuncintisana noma yokubangisana.   Impokophelo noma isifezo salabo abangena ezimakethe abamangalela ukuthi   abashayi mthetho kanye nabanye abathatha izinyathelo kufanele bathathe   izinyathelo ezibavumelayo noma ezivuna bona ukuze kwehliswe amathuba   angathembekile noma angenaqiniso ekungeneni ezimakethe sekwandile kulabo   abanikwe izimvume zezithuthi noma izithwali njengomsebenzi wokungena kwabo   emakethe ngesikhathi noma kusenesikhathi. Ukulawula ukuminyana, lapho kuzinze   khona amakhasimende, kanye nenhlonipho yokushaya umthetho.
line   of credit: An agreement by a creditor, lender,   or bank to extend credit or to make a loan up to a maximum specified amount,   when needed by a customer.  line   of credit: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lomzila othile   ongalandelwa mayelana nezikweletu. Isivumelwano esenziwe yilowo okweletisayo,   umboleki, noma ibhange ekunwebeni noma ekwandiseni isikweletu, noma ekwenzeni   isikweletu esingafinyelela ezingeni eliphezulu lemali ethile uma idingwa   ikhasimende.
line-side   interconnection: Interconnection that takes place at   a low level in switching hierarchy typically for end-users.  line-side interconnection:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana phakathi nendawo ngomzila waseceleni.   Ukuxhumeka phakathi nendawo okwenzeka ezingeni eliphansi ekushintshanisweni   ngokukhuphukela kubasebenzisi kamuva.
link   budget: The determination of whether an   adequate signal can be received by calculating the transmission power and   factors that attenuate the signal.  link budget:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokubekela ngokuxhumana. Ukuziphatha ngisho noma uphawu   olubonisayo (signal) olwanele lungakwazi ukumukela ngokubala amandla   okuthumela kanye nezinto noma izimbangela ezinciphisa uphawu olubonisayo   (signal).
link   margin: The estimated degree of signal   strength above noise at a particular location under various   circumstances.    link margin:   Lokhu kuchaza isikali sokuhlangana noma sokuxhumana ngohlelo oluthile. Izinga   elihlawumbiselwe lamandla ophawu lokubonisa olungaphezu komsindo endaweni   ethile nangaphansi kwezimo ezihlukene.
Local   Access And Transport Area (LATA): A   geographical region sharing common cultural, social, and economic interests   within which the divested BOCs may provide local and interexchange   services.  Local Access And Transport   Area (LATA): Lokhu kuchaza ukuphumelela ekusebenziseni   noma yini lapha ekhaya noma endaweni yakini kanye nendawo yokuhamba   ngamasondo. Izwe lesifunda elihlukaniselana amasiko ajwayelekile, ukubungaza,   kanye nezokwazi ngeminotho esusiwe i BOCs engaletha usizo ngokwemisebenzi   yokushintshana ngaphakathi lapha ezweni.
Local   Area Network: A LAN network of workstations and   personal computers linked via wiring installed by the operator or provided by   the telephone company or via wireless applications.  Local   Area Network: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   lwangaphakathi endaweni ethile. Loluhlelo lokuxhumana lwezikhungo noma   iziteshi zokusebenza kanye namakhompuyutha abanini bawo noma amukeliswe   umuntu ngamunye axhumaniswe ngokudlula ezintanjeni ezifakwe umxhumanisi noma   ezilethwe imboni kathelefoni noma ngokudlula emizamweni kokungenantambo.
Local   Exchange Carrier (LEC): The provider of   local services, often considered a natural monopoly and bottleneck through   which most interexchange traffic traverses.  Local   Exchange Carrier (LEC): Lokhu kuchaza umsizi   noma isithwali hlelo lokuxhumana ngokushintshana sangaphakathi noma   sasekhaya. Yinkampani ebhekene nezidingo zangaphakathi. Lokho ikwenza   ngokungaqhudelani noma ingabangisani nezinye izinkampani. Lokungaqhudelani   nezinye izinkampani kwenza ukuthi umsebenzi wokubhekela izidingo ungahambi   ngokushesha ngenxa yokuhlangana kwezintambo zokuxhumana.
local   loop: Designates the part of a   communications circuit between the subscriber’s equipment and the line   termination equipment in the exchange facility. Local exchange facilities   comprising the first and last legs of a telecommunications route, often   called “the last mile”.  local   loop: Lokhu kuchaza indawo yokuxhumana   yangaphakathi engaba phakathi komsebenzisi nemishini yakhe kanye nesikhungo   esithwala izishintshanisi zokuxhumana. Yingxenye yezokuxhumana phakathi   kwezintambo zokuxhumana zomuntu okhokhela izidingo zokuxhumana kanye nolayini   bokuxhumanisa. Ezokuxhumana endaweni engengakanani zakhiwa imilenze yokuqala   neyokugcina ezintanjeni zokuxhumana.
long-distance   network: Network involved in transporting   information from one geographic location to another. Often called the toll   network in North America and the trunk network in Great Britain.  long-distance network:   Lokhu kuchaza ibanga elihajwa imizila yohlelo oluthile lokuxhumana.   Uchungechunge lwezintambo zokuxhumana ezihambisa ulwazi zilususa endaweni   ethile ziya kwenye, nakunoma yimaphi amagumbi omhlaba njengokusuka eMelika   eseNyakatho ukuya eBrithani.
long-distance:   Characteristic of any telecommunications transmission service, particularly   telephone service, that connects locations which cannot be reached with a   local telephone call – that is, which lie outside of each other’s local   exchange area.  The locations may be   within the same state (intrastate) or in different states (interstate).  long-distance:   Lokhu kuchaza ibanga elingahanjwa imizila yohlelo oluthile lokuxhumana.   Ibanga elide elihanjwa yizintambo zokuxhumana ikakhulu ezikathelefoni   ezihlanganisa noma ezixhumanisa izindawo okusuke kungelula ukufinyelela   kuzona ngenye indlela, njengendlela yokusebenzisa ucingo oluxhumanisa abantu   ngaphakathi endaweni. Lezizindawo eziqhelelene zingaba sesifundazweni   esisodwa noma kwesinye isifundazwe.
Long-Run   Incremental Cost (LRIC): A measure of the   additional cost incurred over the long term to provide a particular amount of   a good or service. This measure accounts only for the additional costs   incurred without regard to embedded, fixed costs that could be shared by   additional users.  Long-Run   Incremental Cost (LRIC): Lokhu kuchaza   isikali sezindleko ezidaleke isikhathi eside ngesikhathi kwenziwa imisebenzi   noma ekuletheni usizo oluthile. Yindlela okukalwa ngayo izindleko ezengeziwe   esikhathini esithi asibe side lapho kunikezelwa inani lezidingo ezithile.   Lendlela ikala izindleko ezengeziwe njengezindleko ezenziwa wukusebenzisa   abantu abaningi kunesibalo esejwayelekile.
loop:   A pair of wires, or its equivalent, between a customer’s station and the   central office from which the station is served.  loop:   Lokhu kuchaza izintambo ezihamba ngambili noma okucishe kulingane   nokubili.Izintambo lezo ziphakathi komthengi noma isiteshi somthengi nehovisi   elididiyela ezokuxhumana iziteshi zamakhasimende.
loop: A   communications channel from a switching centre or an individual message   distribution point to the user terminal (syn. = subscriber line). Also a type   of antenna, in the form of a circle or rectangle, usually used in   direction-finding equipment and in UHF reception.  loop:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo lapho   kuxhumana khona izixhumanisi ezimbili noma ezingaphezulu ezinamakhanda   okuxhumana angafani (male and female connections). Umzila noma umgudu   wokuxhumana osuka esikhungweni sokushintshanisa noma endaweni yokusabalalisa   umyalezo yomuntu othile kuze kuyofika esikhungweni somsebenzisi   (sny = umzila wokubolekwa). Futhi uhlobo oluthile lwesimukelisi   sohlelo oluthile lokuxhumanisa (antenna), lungamisa okwendilinga noma   lubukeke njenge sikwele esinezinhlangothi ezilinganayo, okusetshenziswe   emathuluzini okufuna umzila, kanye nasekutholakaleni kwesikali zinga   lokuxhumana (UHF). Uchungechunge lwezokuxhumana, kusukela esikhungwini   sokuxhumanisa iziteshi zabathengi ukuya ehovisi elididiyela zonke   ezokuxhumana. Kungasho nezintambo zomoya eziyindilinga noma lokho okuwumdwebo   onezinhlangothi ezine. Zivame ukusetshenziswa emishinini ukuze kutholakale   izindlela zokuhamba noma ukwamukela ezomoya.
Low   Earth Orbit (LEO): Non-geo-stationary   orbit for satellites primarily providing mobile telecommunications to   lightweight transceivers. LEO satellites operate only a few hundred   kilometres above the Earth’s surface, thereby reducing launch costs and the   power needed to transmit to and from the satellites. On the other hand, the   closer proximity to Earth requires a larger number of satellites to achieve   desired regional or global coverage.  Low   Earth Orbit (LEO): Lokhu kuchaza   ukujikelezala emoyeni okuphansi emhlabeni. Ezokuxhumana ezisemkhathini   ezenzelwe ukuthi kube lula ukuxhumana ngezomoya emishinini yezokwamukela   elula. Lezi zokuxhumana zengamele umhlaba ibanga elingamakhulu angemangaki   amakhilomitha phezu komhlaba. Ukuba seduze nomhlaba kunciphisa izindleko   zokuthumela izinto zokuxhumana, ukumisa izinto zokuxhumana, kanye namandla   aphakela ezokuxhumana emkhathini nakumasatellite. Kodwa-ke ukuba seduze kwazo   nomhlaba kudinga ukuthi ezokuxhumana zibe ziningana ukuze kutholakale   ukwamukela okukahle phezu komhlaba wonke noma ezindaweni ezithize   ezikhethiwe.
Low   Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOs): LEOs operate   in orbits below the geostationary orbiting arc, where service can be provided   to low-powered hand-held terminals. Big LEOs provide a variety of voice and   data services, while small LEOs provide data and emergency position location   services.  Low   Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOs): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana lwe satellite olujikelezayo phansi emhlabeni. Lezi   ezokuxhumana okusebenza ngaphansi kwemikhathi lapho izidingo zokuxhumana   ziphakelwa imishini emincane edinga amandla aphansi amancane. Lemishini   yokuxhumana esebenzisa umkhathi iyashiyana, emikhulu iphakela izinhlobo   ezehlukene zamazwi nemiyalezo, emincane iphakela ikakhulu imiyalezo eqondene   nezinto eziphuthumayo.

 

M
 
magnetic   core: A configuration of magnetic material   placed in a spatial relationship to current-carrying conductors and whose   magnetic properties are essential to its use.  magnetic   core: Lokhu kuchaza imaphakathi nendawo   likamazibuthe osebenza ngohlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Lokhu kuthi makufane   nozibuthe, obekwa emkhathini uhambise ezokuxhumana ngokusebenza ngozibuthe.   Ukusebenza kukazibuthe kubalulekile kulokhu kuxhumana.
magnetic   tape: The tape of any material coated or   impregnated with a magnetisable substance upon which information can be   recorded by magnetic flux.  magnetic   tape: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwebhande   okungaqoshwa kulo izwi noma uhlelo lwezithombe zebhayisikobho olunomazibuthe.   Kungaba itheyiphu eyakhiwe noma ingaluphi uhlobo embozwe noma egcotshwe   ngokunamathelayo okuwuketshezi okunomazibuthe lapho kungaqoshwa khona ulwazi   noma uhlelo ngokushintshashintsha kuka mazibuthe.
mailbox   service: See Electronic messaging.  mailbox service:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo losizo noma umsebenzi webhokisi noma indawo engaba   sekhompuyutheni lapho kugcinwa khona izinhlelo, imininingwane noma imilayezo.
marginal   cost: The increment in total production   costs needed to produce one additional unit of output.  marginal cost:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezincane ezingekho semqoka. Ukukhushulwa enanini   lezindleko zomkhiqizo okudingekayo ukuze kutholakale okukodwa ukwandiswa   kwengxenye yokuphumayo.
market   power: The ability to affect the price or   supply of a good or service.  market power:   Lokhu kuchaza amandla ezimakethe. Ikhono noma igunya ekulawuleni inani lemali   noma ukusabalaliswa kwezimpahla noma usizo noma imisebenzi.
MCI: US   interexchange carrier: with the largest   share of other common carrier (OCC) traffic. MCI provides long-distance,   private line, cellular, paging, international, and electronic mail   services.  MCI: US   interexchange carrier: Lokhu kuchaza   izithwali noma izithuthi zokushintshana kwangaphakathi emazweni ahlangene   aphesheya kwezilwandle. Yingxenye enkulu yezinye izithuthi noma izithwali   ezejwayelekile (OCC) ngoku minyene i MCI iletha ngokwebanga elide, umzila   wangasese noma oyimfihlo, umakhala ekhukhwini, ukuthintana ngamapheyija,   umhlaba wonke, kanye nosizo lwemisebenzi yemiyalezo ethunyelwa ngemishini   esebenzisa amandla kagesi.
Memorandum   of Understanding (MOU): A preliminary   agreement setting forth basic terms and conditions typically followed up with   a more comprehensive agreement.  Memorandum   of Understanding (MOU): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo olubhalwe phansi lokuvunyelwene ngakho. Isivumelwano sokuqala esibeka   izinqumo ezine ezisemqoka ezibe sezilandelwa isivumelwano esifushane nesidle   ngokuqina.
memory:   Capacity to store information; any device into which information can be   introduced for extraction at a later time; the physical structure embodying a   coding field or store.  memory:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo lapho kugcinwa khona imibiko noma izinhlelo ezisemqoka.   Loluhlelo lutholakala kwikhompuyutha. Ukuba namandla noma indawo eyanele   yokugcina ulwazi, izinhlelo, noma yisiphi isicucu noma umshini phakathi lapho   ulwazi noma izinhlelo zingaziswa noma zibekwe khona ukuze zikhishwe ekuhambeni   kwesikhathi. Into noma indawo ethintekayo ehlanganise noma ehlangene nohlelo   olufihla imininingwane, izinhlelo, noma yini esemqoka futhi eyimfihlo noma   lakugcinwa khona.
Mercury:   Mercury Communication Limited: the United Kingdom’s second network operator,   a subsidiary of Cable and Wireless plc.  Mercury:   Mercury Communication Limited. Lokhu kumele igama lemboni yokuxhumana   yaphesheya kwezilwandle e United Kingdom. Lena indlela yokuxhumana   yomxhumanisi yesibili yezwe laphesheya kwezilwandle elibizwa nge United   Kingdom, iyingxenye yokwezintambo nokungenantambo.
Message   Telephone Service (MTS): Conventional   dial-up voice telephone service, also known by the acronym POTS.  Message   Telephone Service (MTS): Lokhu kuchaza   ukudlulisa umyalezo ngosizo lukathelefoni. Ekuhlanganeni kwamazwi ekushayeni   noma ekuxhumaneni ngosizo lukathelefoni.
messaging:   See Electronic messaging.  messaging:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthunyelwa   kwemiyalezo. Bheka i Electronic messaging.
microwave (mw):   Loosely, an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength from 300 mm to 10 mm (1   GHz to 30 GHz). Microwaves exhibit many of the properties usually associated   with waves in the optical regime, e.g. they are easily concentrated   into a beam.  microwave   (mw): Lokhu kuchaza Into engamile ndawonye   noma ejikelezayo futhi ekhipha imisebe okungaba ethwebulayo ukuze ilethe   ukuxhumana kanti futhi kungaba imisebe eletha ukukhanya. Okungafaswe ndawo,   okunamandla okudonsa ngomazibuthe kokuhamba kohlelo lokuthumela noma   lokuxhumana ngemisebe nangokujikeleza okunesikali sobude sokuhamba   kokuthunyelwa kokuxhumana ukusuka emashumini amathathu ubude kuye eshumini   ubude (1 GHz to 30 GHz). Uhlelo lokuthumela noma lokuxhumana   ngokwemisebe nangokujikeleza lubonisa kalula ezinye zezinto ezijwayele   ukufaniswa, noma ukuhlotshaniswa nohlelo lokuthumela noma ukuxhumana   olusebenzisa imisebe ngokujikeleza ekuboneni kangcono noma kalula   enhlanganweni, (isibonelo), bahlangene kalula ekukhanyeni.
microwave   link: A radio transmission system   operating in the range above 1 gigahertz (GHz) capable of carrying large   numbers of telecommunication circuits using beams relayed by means of highly   directive antennas.  microwave   link: Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana ngohlelo   lokuthumela noma lokuxhumana olusebenzisa imisebe ngokujikeleza. Uhlelo   lokuthumela lomsakazo oluxhumanisa noma olusebenza ezingeni elingaphezu kuka   (1 gigahertz) (GHz) okwazi ukuthwala isibalo noma inani elikhulu   lezinombolo zezithwali mandla okuxhumana ngothelefoni ekusebenziseni imisebe   edluliswa ngendlela ephezulu yokuyisamukeli esiqondisa ngqo.
microwave   radio: Radio transmission system using   frequencies above 1 gigahertz (GHz) that can be economically transmitted   using highly efficient small antennas on relatively inexpensive towers.  microwave   radio: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   ngokomsakazo olusebenzisa uhlelo lokuthumela noma lokuxhumana ngemisebe   ejikelezayo. Uhlelo lokuthumela ngomsakazo olusebenzisa okuphathelene   nokuphindaphindayo okuhamba emoyeni okungaphezu kuka (1 gigahertz) (GHz)   (uhlelo lwendlela ethile yokudlulisa ngokushesha) engathunyelwa ngokonga   ngokusebenzisa isimukelisi esincane esisezingeni eliphezulu noma okufanayo   okungabizi okuphakeme njengamabhilidi.
Middle   Earth Orbit (MEO): Non-geostationary   satellite orbit between low Earth orbits below and geostationary orbits   above, where operators attempt to balance the benefits accruing from   operating closer to Earth (e.g. access by lower-powered terminals) and   operating high enough to provide broad geographical coverage.  Middle Earth Orbit (MEO):   Lokhu kuchaza ukujikeleza phakathi nomhlaba. Uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula   ngemisebe olusemkhathini oluhamba ngomoya (satellite) olumile ngokwezwe kodwa   olujikelezayo phakathi komhlaba ojikeleza kancane ngaphansi kanye   nokusemhlabeni phansi okuphenduka ngaphezulu, lapho abaxhumanisi noma   abasebenzi bezama ukulinganisa amalungelo avela lapho bexhumanisa   ngokusondele noma eduze nezwe (isibonelo) ukukwazi ukungena kwalokho   okuthwala amandla noma izindawo lapho kuhamba khona amandla okuxhumana abuye   asebenze kakhulu ukuze abhekane nezidingo ezibanzi zasezweni.
mid-ocean:   The concept that international half circuits are matched by foreign   correspondents at the centrepoint of a submarine cable.  mid-ocean:   Lokhu kuchaza imaphakathi nolwandle. Umqondo wezikhungo zokuxhumana   ezingaphelele ezisebenza nalezo ezingaphelele zakwamanye amazwe. Lokhu   kwenzeka endaweni ephakathi nendawo kulawo makhebula angaphansi kolwandle.
Minimum   Assignable Unit Of Ownership (MAUO):   The smallest unit of submarine cable capacity, typically a 64-Kbps circuit   with associated capacity for multiplexing, allocatable to an investor or   available to others through an Indefeasible Right of Use conveyance.  Minimum   Assignable Unit Of Ownership (MAUO):   Lokhu kuchaza ukunikwa ubunikazi obuncane bento noma ukunikwa ilungelo   lokusebenzisa ingxenye encane yento ethile. Yingxenye encane yekhebula   engaphansi kolwandle engango 64Kbps. Lesi yisikhungo esingakwazi ukwandisa,   ngokwabela abatshali zimali nabanye abanjalo ngokwezinjongo ezibagunyazayo   ukuthi bazisebenzise ekuxhumaneni.
Minitel:   A diverse array of information services provided via France Telecom using a   terminal device initially distributed to telephone subscribers in lieu of   up-to-date printed directories.  Minitel:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lokudlulisa ulwazi. Yizindledlana ezehlukene   ezibhekela izidingo zolwazi ngendlela yezokuxhumana yase France esebenzisa   umshinyana oqale uthumelele labo abanezincingo zethelefoni amabhuku ezincingo   asuke esanda kushicilelwa.
mobile   services: Radio communication services between   ships, aircraft, road vehicles, or other stations for use while in motion or   between such stations and fixed points on land.  mobile   services: Lokhu kuchaza imisebenzi awumahamba   nendlwana. Indlela yezokuxhumana ngezomoya phakathi kwemikhumbi, amabhanoyi,   izimoto neziteshi. Abantu bayakwazi ukuxhumana lapho behamba kumbe bephakathi   kweziteshi noma ezindaweni ezithize ezimisiwe emhlabeni.
Mobile-Satellite   Service (MSS): An ITU-recognised service designation   for the provision of voice and data services to mobile users via   geostationary or non-geostationary orbiting satellites.  Mobile-Satellite   Service (MSS): Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwemisebenzi   yesatellite olungumahamba nendlwana. Indlela emiselwe ukunikeza izwi   nenkulumo kubantu abasebenzisa izincingo ezingomahamba nendlwana Lezozincingo   zisebenzisa amandla amasatellite.
modem:   A contraction of the terms “mo(dulator)” and “dem(odulator)”: an accessory   that allows computers and terminal equipment to communicate through telephone   lines or cable. It converts analogue data into the digital language of   computers by modulating and demodulating data signals to enable computers and   other digital devices to operate over an analogue network.  modem:   Lokhu kuchaza umshini wokuxhumana oxhunywa kwikhompuyutha nakuthelefoni   othumela imibhalo ngekhompuyutha ngemuva kokuthi kushayelwe inombolo yalapho   kuthunyelwa khona umyalezo. Indlela efingqiwe emele umshini owenza   amakhompuyutha akwazi ukuxhumana ngezintambo zikagesi noma ngekhebula.   Iguqula inkulumo iyenze amagama abhaliwe ahamba ngamandla kagesi   ngokushintshashintsha amasignali ukwenzela amakhompuyutha nezinye izinto   ezikwazi ukuxhumana ngezintambo.
monopoly:   A market structure with only one firm selling a given good or service and no   other firms selling closely related goods or services. If, as is often the   case with public utilities, the technology is such that the existence of more   than one supplier would lead to much higher production costs, the structure   is referred to as a natural monopoly.  monopoly:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokulawula konke ezimakethe. Yilapho imboni eyodwa   kuphela ikwazi ukudayisa izinto kodwa lelo lungelo lingekho kwezinye izimboni   ezidayisa izinto ezithi azifane. Nasezintweni zobuchwepheshe, uma kukhona   imboni eyodwa ekhiqizayo kukhuphuka izindleko zokukhiqiza.
MTS: Message   Toll Service: the basic service furnished for   telephone communication between exchanges or other rate centres.  MTS: Message   Toll Service: Lokhu kuchaza isidingo esinikezwa   abezingcingo ukuze kube khona ukuxhumana ezikhungweni ezahlukene   zokuxhumanisa izingcingo.
multicast:   A technique that allows data in a network (including data in packet form)   to be simultaneously transmitted to a selected set of destinations. Some networks   such as Ethernet support multicast by allowing a network interface to belong   to one or more multicast groups. The other concept of multicast is to   transmit identical data simultaneously to a selected set of destinations in a   network, usually without obtaining acknowledgement of receipt of the   transmission.  multicast:   Lokhu kuchaza Indlela evumela ukuthi kube khona ukuthunyelwa kolwazi   ezindaweni ezehlukene ngesikhathi esisodwa. Ezinye zalezizintambo zokuxhumana   njenge “Ethernet” zixhumanisa izintambo zamaqembu ehlukene.   Kungasho nokwedlulisa ulwazi ngesikhathi benza ezindaweni ezikhethiwe   ngaphandle kokunikezwa umyalezo wokuthi into ebeyithunyelwe ifikile.
multichannel:   This refers to communications, usually full-duplex communications, on more   than one channel. Multi-channel transmission may be accomplished by   time-division multiplexing, frequency-division multiplexing, phase-division   multiplexing, or space diversity.  multichannel:   Lokhu kuchaza okunemizila eminingi. Kuqondiswe endleleni yokuxhumana lapho   othola ukuthi kusetshenziswa indlela engaphezu kweyodwa noma umgudu ongaphezu   kowodwa. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokushintshanisa isikhathi sokuxhumana, ubuningi   bezikhathi zokuxhumana, nokuxhumana ngendlela yasemkhathini.
multimedia:   The integration of various media previously considered available via a   separate pipeline or marketing channel (e.g. using the television for   entertainment and new interactive data processing, consumer order entry, and   utility monitoring).  multimedia:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluhlanganise zonke into eziletha ulwazi noma   ezokuxhumana. Yindlela yokuxhumana ehlanganisa izindlela eziningi   njengomabonakude, yikhompuyutha, ukubona ama-oda angenayo noma indlela ugesi   noma ucingo olusetshenziswa ngayo lapho kukhuthazwa ukuthi into ithengwe.   Ukutshengiswa kolwazi ngendlela engaphezu kweyodwa, kusetshenziswa isithombe   esixhunywa kumabonakude, izwi, umculo, nalokho okuwulwazi ngesikhathi   esisodwa.
multimedia:   Pertains to the processing and integrated presentation of information in more   than one form, e.g., video, voice, music, or data. (see multiple   media).  multimedia:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluhlanganisa   zonke izinhlelo zokuxhumana noma zokuletha ulwazi. Lokhu kumele noma kuchaza   ukusetshenziswa kanye nokuhlanganiswa kombono wolwazi okungenzeka ngendlela   engaphezu kweyodwa, isibonelo, umshini obonisa uhlelo oluthile lwezithombe   oxhunywa kumabonakude, izwi, umculo, noma uhlelo oluqukethe ulwazi oluthile   lokuxhumana. (Bheka i multiple media).
multi-national   enterprise: A venture doing business in a number   of nations, making it a candidate for turnkey services from systems   integrators and outsourcers.  multi-national   enterprise: Lokhu kuchaza ibhizinisi lomhlaba   wonke. Yimboni evula amathuba emisebenzi amaningi. Lokhu kwenza kufuneke   izintambo zokuxhunywa ezenza ukuthi amakhompuyutha akwazi ukuxhumana   nabakwamanye amazwe.
multiple media:   Transmission media using more than one type of transmission path (e.g. optical   fibre, radio and copper wire) to deliver information.  multiple   media: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuthumela   ulwazi olusebenzisa izindlela eziningi zokuthumela noma zokuxhumana. Yindlela   yokuxhumana ngokusebenzisa ezomoya, izincingo zokuxhumana, uthelefoni,   nezincingwana ezixhumanisa amakhompuyutha ukuze akwazi ukubamba ulwazi kanye   nemiyalezo.
multiplexer (MUX):   A device that combines multiple inputs into an aggregate signal to be   transported via a single transmission channel.  multiplexer   (MUX): Lokhu kuchaza umshini ohlanganisa   izinhlelo zokuxhumana zekhompuyutha. Umshinyana ohlanganisa okufakwe   nge”signali” noma uphawu oluthunyelwa ngendlela eyodwa. Umshinyana   ohlanganisa ama”signali” noma izimpawu ezimbili nangaphezulu,   ukwazi nokuthumela umyalezo ngendlela esetshenziswa abantu abaningi.
multiplexer:   A device that combines two or more signals for transmission over a shared   path by allocating to each a distinctive frequency range or time slot in a   common spectrum or bit stream.  multiplexer:   Lokhu kuchaza umshini ohlanganisa   izinhlelo zokuxhumana. Isicucu somshini esihlanganisa izimpawu ezimibili noma   ezingaphezulu zokuthumela phezukwendawo noma emzileni osetshenziswa abanye   futhi onikezelwe ohlelweni lwesizinda sokuphindaphinda ngalunye olukhethiwe   noma ngesikhathi esithile ohlelweni olujwayelekile lokuxhumana olusebenza ngokungalingani   nangokungafani noma ukuhamba kwesigqi.
multiplexing (MUXing):   The combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission   medium. In electronic communications, the two basic forms of multiplexing are   time-division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM).   In optical communications, the analogue of FDM is referred to as   wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM).  multiplexing (MUXing):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlanganisa imizila ethwala izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezingafani.   Ukuhlanganiswa kwemizila ethwala ulwazi emibili noma engaphezulu ukuze ibe   indlela ejwayelekile esetshenziswa ekuthumeleni. Ekuxhumaneni lopho   kusetshenziswa imishini yokuxhumana esebenzisa amandla kagesi, izimo ezimbili   ezisemqoka zokuhlanganisa imizila ethwala izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezingafani,   ziba izihlukanisi zikhathi ekuhlanganiseni imizila ethwala izinhlelo   zokuxhumana ezingafani (TDM) kanye nokuhlukaniswa kokuphindaphinda   ekuhlanganisweni kwemizila ethwala izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezingafani (FDM).   Ekuxhumaniseni okusebenzisa ukukhanya kwamandla kagesi, ukuboniswa kohlelo   oluthile lunjengaba lunjalo lwe (FDM) lokhu ke kufaniswa nokuhlukaniswa   kobude besithwali zwi noma isithumeli zwi emoyeni ekuhlanganisweni kwemizila   ethwala izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezingafani (WDM).
multiplexing:   Subdividing a circuit into more than one channel to derive more throughput   and capacity.  multiplexing:   Lokhu kusho ukuhlukanisa isithwali mandla sokuxhumana ukuze sibe nemizila   eminye. Yindlela yokwehlukanisa kaningi izikhungo zikagesi ukuze zibe   nemigudu eminingi ukuze kubonakale ubukhulu bazo.
multipoint access:   Access in which more than one terminal is supported by a single network   termination.  multipoint   access: Lokhu kuchaza ukuphumelela   ukusebenzisa into exhumeke kaningi. Yindlela yokungena ezinhlelweni   ze-khompuyutha esimamiswa wuchungechunge olulodwa lwezintambo zokuxhumana.
multipoint:   Using telecommunication services to serve more than one physical location   (e.g. originating a video programme for delivery to numerous cable systems   using the broad geographical coverage of a satellite).  multipoint:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumanisa izindawo eziningi. Ukusetshenziswa kwezidingo   zokuxhumana ukuze zikwazi ukusiza indawo engaphezu kweyodwa njengo   (kusungulwa kohlelo lwalokho okuyisithombe okuxhunywa kumabonakude. Lokhu   kungasiza kulezo zintambo zamakhebuli ezehlukene, ukuze kusizakale zonke   lezozindawo ezingathola ukuxhumana ngendlela yesatellite).

 

N
 
narrowband signal:   Any analogue signal or analogue representation of a digital signal whose   essential spectral content is limited to that which can be contained within a   voice channel of nominal 4-kHz bandwidth. Narrowband radio uses a voice   channel with a nominal 3-kHz bandwidth.  narrowband   signal: Lokhu kuchaza phawu noma isignali   yesikhungo sesithwali mandla okumukela uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana okungaba   okomsakazo. Kungaba noma iyiphi i”signali”   ye-“analogue”noma lokho okumele i-“analogue”esebenza   ngezinombolo. Umsebenzi wayo ukalelwe nje ukuthi ungayeqi imigudu esebenzisa   amaphimbo anesikali sika-4KHz bandwidth. Ukuhamba kwezwi emoyeni ngendlela   engakhululekile kungasebenzisa imigudu enesikali sika 3KHz bandwith.
narrowband:   A relatively restricted frequency band normally used for a single purpose or   made available to a single user.  narrowband:   Lokhu kuchaza Indlela yokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni engakhululekile   esetshenziselwa isidingo esisodwa noma esenzelwe ukuthi sitholakale   kumsebenzisi oyedwa.
“national   hero”: A domestic carrier or manufacturer   benefitting from policies designed to protect it from foreign competition,   including closed procurements and other policies that handicap or prohibit   market entry.  “national   hero”: Lokhu kuchaza isithuthi   sangaphakathi noma umkhiqizi osizakalayo ngemithetho eyenzelwe ukumvikela   ekuncintisaneni kwangaphandle, okungafaka ukuvimbeka kwezinto   ebezingatholakala, kanye neminye imithetho engakhubaza noma ivimbele ukungena   ezimakethe.
National Information Infrastructure (NII):   A proposed national, advanced, seamless web of public and private   communications networks, interactive services, interoperable hardware and   software, computers, databases, and consumer electronics to put vast amounts   of information at user’s fingertips. NII includes more than just the physical   facilities (i.e. cameras, scanners, keyboards, telephones, fax machines,   computers, switches, compact disks, video and audio tape, cable, wire,   satellites, optical fibre transmission lines, microwave nets, switches,   televisions, monitors, and printers) used to transmit, store, process, and   display voice, data, and images. It also encompasses a wide range of   interactive functions, user-tailored services, and multimedia databases that   are interconnected in a technology-neutral manner that will not favour any one   single industry over any other. (synonym = information superhighway).  National   Information Infrastructure (NII): Lokhu   kuchaza isidingo solwazi esiyingqalasizinda ezweni. Okuphathelene   nesiphakamiso sezwe esisezingeni eliphezulu esingabonakali ukuthi siqalakuphi   nokuthi sigcina kuphi kulezozindlela zokuxhumana zomphakathi kanye   nezangasese. Lokhu ke kungahlanganisa lezozidingo okulula ukuxhumana ngazo,   ilokho okuphatha izinhlelo zekhompuyutha, ukuze kugcinwe ulwazi   kwikhompuyutha, okuphathelene nabathengi ukuze basheshe bathole ulwazi   abaludingayo. Loluhlelo lufaka nezidingo zokusebenzisa izandla ezingaphezulu   kwesisodwa (amakhamera noma imishini yokuthatha izithombe, amascanner noma   umshini odlulisa imibhalo ngokuyibukela, keyboards noma imishini echafazwa   ngeminwe njengo piyano, othelefoni, imishini yokuthumela imibiko,   amakhompuyutha, amacwecwe amancane noma amadiski amancane, amavideo noma   imishini ebonisa izithombe ezifana nezebhayisikobho esebenzisa omabonakude,   ama audio tape noma imishini yokuqopha izwi, izintambo, izingcingo,   amasatellite noma izinhlelo zokuxhumna ngokuthwebula okujikelezayo   emkhathini), imizila yokudlulisa izintambo eziningi ezincane ezakhiwe   ngendwangu enamakhemikhali futhi ezigoqwe ndawonye ngento ekwazi ukukubonisa   zona zibezingaphakathi kuyo, amanethi noma indwangu noma  izintambo ezakhiwe zaminyana kodwa   zasezishiya izimbotshana phakathi nazo zohlelo lwemisebe ejikelezayo   (microwave), omabonakude amathuluzi ekhompuyutha, nalokho okubhalayo. Konke   lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukuhambisa ulwazi, ukugcina ulwazi, ukuqhuba kanye   nokukhangisa ngezwi, ulwazi kanye nemicabango. Kubuye kufakwe futhi   imisebenzi eminingi ekhuthaza izidingo ezinokusebenziseka, okuxube izindlela   eziningi zokuxhumana nakho konke nje okugcinwe kwikhompuyutha okuxhunywe   ngendlela yobuchwepheshe engavumelana nemboni eyodwa, ikhohlwe ngezinye   izimboni.
National   Information Initiative (or Infrastructure) (NII):   A plan for using government to stimulate primarily private ventures that will   upgrade and expand the telecommunications and information processing   infrastructure in the US. The government initiative includes a vision for   ubiquitous access to a feature-rich information highway.  National   Information Initiative (or Infrastructure) (NII):   Lokhu kuchaza ukugcizelelwa kolwazi emhlabeni noma izidingo ezisemqoka. Lolu   uhlelo luka Hulumeni lokugqugquzela labo abasuke befuna ukuhlangana bazenzele   amabhizinisi abo ngasese. Loluhlelo lusuke lwenzelwa ukuthi kuthuthukiswe   kuphindwe kwandiswe ezokuxhumana kanye nokuqhutshwa kolwazi lwengqalasizinda   yaphesheya kwezilwandle ezweni lase Melika. Lengqalasizinda kaHulumeni   kufanele ibe neso lokubona lokho okungakenzeki okungaba nelungelo lokuthi   kutholakale noma ikuphi noma inini kulezo zikhungo eziphathelene nolwazi.
National   Television Standards Committee (NTSC):   The developer of a broadcast colour television standard in the US that is   implemented in North America and Japan.  National Television   Standards Committee (NTSC): Lokhu kuchaza   ikomiti eliphathelene nokuthuthukiswa komabonakude emhlabeni. Labo   abathuthukisa izinga lokusakaza ngomabonakude abanemibala phesheya   kwezilwandle e Melika. Loluhlelo seluqaliwe nasezindaweni ezifana ne Nyakatho   phesheya kwezilwandle e Melika kanye nakwelinye izwe eliphesheya kwezilwandle   elibizwa nge Japan.
natural   monopoly: A single manufacturer and service   provider who singularly can operate most efficiently and who can maximise   scale economies.  natural   monopoly: Lokhu kuchaza ukulawulwa   ngokwemvelo.noma ukulawula okuyimvelo. Umkhiqizi noma umlethi wosizo   ongasebenza yedwa ngokugculisayo futhi ongakwazi ukukhuphula isikali somcebo.
network interface:   The point of interconnection between a user terminal and a private or public   network or between one network and another network.  network   interface: Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana   ehlobene nezinye. Lokhu kumayelana nendawo ethile okuxhunyanwa kuyo. Lokhu   kungenzeka phakathi komsebenzi yilokho okuthwala amandla okuxhumana kanye   nendlela yokuxhumana yangasese noma yomphakathi noma kungaba phakathi   kwendlela yokuxhumana eyodwa kanye nezinye.
network:   Basically, an interconnection of three or more communicating entities   that perform a specific function which is usually limited in scope and very   focussed in function, integration or differentiation.  network:   Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana. Lokhu kungasho ukuxhunywa kwalezozinto   zokuxhumana ezizimele. Lezozinto zingaba ntathu noma zibe ngaphezulu.   Lezozinto zokuxhumana zenza imisebenzi ethile kanti futhi ziyakalelwa indawo   ezingayisebenzisa. Imisebenzi yenziwa ngendlela eqondile, nehlanganisayo noma   ehlukanisayo.
Newly-Industrialised   Country (NIC): A nation with an expanding economy   and typically with growing telecommunications requirements. Newly   industrialised countries (such as Republic of Korea and Singapore) are   sometimes also referred to as newly industrialised economies (NIE).  Newly-Industrialised   Country (NIC): Lokhu kuchaza izwe elithuthukiswe   kabusha ngohlelo lwezimboni. Lokhu kungasho isizwe esinomnotho okhulayo kanye   nezidingo zokuxhumana ezikhulayo. Amazwe anezimboni ezisezintsha njenga   phesheya kwezilwandle e Republic yase Korea nase Singapore. Lamazwe abizwa   ngokuthi ayizimboni ezintsha eziletha umnotho.
node:   A point in telecommunication or information processing network configuration   where two or more lines, routes, or pathways come together (e.g. at a switch,   Earth station, or private branch exchange).  node:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo lapho kuxhumana khona imizila yezinhlelo zokuxhumana   ezingafani. Indawo ephathelene nokuxhumana noma isikhungo sokudlulisa ulwazi   ngokuxhumana ngezintambo lapho uthola ukuthi kukhona imizila emibili noma   engaphezulu. Izindlela ezingahlanganiswa ndawonye nje ngalokho okushintsha   ugesi, isikhungo samandla kagesi, noma isikhungo sokushintsha sangasese.
non-common   carrier: A classification that reduces or   eliminates regulation in recognition of the carrier’s lack of market   dominance and the non-essentialness of the services offered.  non-common   carrier: Lokhu kuchaza izithuthi   ezingajwayelekile. Uhlelo lokuhlukanisa ukunciphisa imithetho yokubonakalisa   ukungabi nolwazi kwabathuthi lokunqoba izimakethe kanye nokungadingeki   kwezidingo ababezinikiwe.
non-tariff   barrier (NTB): Barriers to trade that are not   documented in a customs duty or tariff.  non-tariff   barrier (NTB): Lokhu kuchaza okuvimbile futhi   okungakhokhelwa intela. Izinqinamba zokuhwebelana ezingabhaliwe kuleyontela   yangaphakathi ekhaya.
non-traffic-based   circuits: Telecommu-nications transmission   capacity that is obtained by negotiation between the carrier (such as KDD)   and the operator of an IVAN; used to distinguish the terms and conditions of   such circuits from tariff-based (usually leased line) circuits.  non-traffic-based   circuits: Lokhu kuchaza izixhumanisi   zezithwali mandla ezingaminyene. Ubukhulu bohlelo lokuthumela ezokuxhumana   ngezingcingo olutholakala ngokuxoxisana phakathi kwalabo abathuthayo njenge   (KDD) kanye nalowo ongumxhumanisi we IVAN, esetshenziselwa ukubonisa   imithetho kanye nezinqinamba zalokho okuphathelene nokuhanjiswa kukagesi   okuncike ekukhokhweni kwentela yalokho okuphathelene nogesi.
non-traffic-sensitive   costs: Investment and operating costs   (including depreciation and return on investment) associated with telephone   company facilities, which do not vary with the aggregate level of usage   (number of calls, minutes of use) of the telephone system. The principal   component is the subscriber line connecting each customer’s home or business   premises with the local telephone company’s central office.  non-traffic-sensitive costs:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezisemqoka noma ezibucayi ezingenakho ukuminyana.   Lolu uhlelo lokulondoloza okunenzuzo kanye nezindleko zokusebenza (okungaba   ukwehla kwezinga noma imbuyiselo oyitholaya kulokho okulondolozile). Lokhu ke   singakufanisa nezidingo zemboni yothelefoni engahlukile kakhulu ezingeni   lalokho okungaba isamba esingasetshenziswa ezinhlelweni, (lokho ke kungasho   inani lezingcingo ozishayile, kanye nemizuzu oyisebenzisile lapho ushaya   uthelefoni). Ingxenye ebalulekile yileyo yalabo abawukhokhelayo umzila noma   ulayini obaxhumanisa nekhaya lomthengi ngamunye noma indawo eyibhizinisi   kanye nehovisi embonini eliphakathi nendawo elinothelefoni wokushayela   ngaphakathi.
number   portability: Ability to maintain the same user   number when transferring among various networks and service providers.   Denotes the ability to designate a single telephone number for accessing   individuals with several telecommunication devices operating in different   locales.

number   portability: Lokhu kuchaza umshini wohlelo   oluthile lokuxhumana okwazi ukugcina inombolo yomsebenzisi injengoba injalo   ngesikhathi loluhlelo lushintshela kwezinye izindlela zokuxhumana. Ikhono   lokukwazi ukugcina inombolo eyodwa lapho kuba khona ushintsho phakathi   kwezindlela ezehlukene zokuxhumana kanye nezidingo ezisisizayo. Ingabonisa   ikhono lokusungula inombolo eyodwa yocingo noma kathelefoni ukuze ihlole   umuntu ngamunye ngemishini yokuxhumana ngocingo eminingana esebenza   ezindaweni ezahlukene.
O
 
OCC: Other   common carriers: a term used in the United States to   refer to interexchange carries other than AT&T.  It includes specialised common carriers   (SCCs), domestic and international record carriers (IRCs), and domestic   satellite carriers.  OCC: Other   common carriers: Lokhu kuchaza izithwali   ezishintshanisayo ezijwayelekile kunezinye zakwa AT&T. Isivumelwano   esisetshenziswa ezweni eliphesheya kwezilwandle lase Melika eliqonde   ukushintshisana ngaphakathi kwezithuthi ezingenayo i AT&T okuyimboni   ephathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana. Lokhu ke kungafaka izithuthi   ezejwayelekile ezingadidiyeli konke ezasekhaya kanye nezithuthi zikazwelonke   (IRCs) kanye nezithuthi zasekhaya zohlelo lokuxhumana olusebenza   ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikelezayo esibhakabhakeni noma emkhathini   (satellite).
off-line:   Pertaining to equipment not connected with the central processing unit of a   computer.  off-line:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhluleka kohlelo oluthile ekuxhumaniseni. Lokhu kufaniswa   nomshini ongaxhunyiwe engxenyeni yomshini olawula ukusebenza kwekhompuyutha.
Off-Shore   Branching Unit: A device located on the ocean floor   that is used to interconnect submarine cables, thereby expanding coverage and   providing for redundant or alternative routing of traffic.  Off-shore   Branching Unit: Lokhu kuchaza uphiko oluphesheya   kwezilwandle lapho kuhlukana khona imizila. Isicucwana somshini obekwe phansi   ekujuleni kolwandle osetshenziselwa ukuxhuma phakathi nendawo amakhebula noma   izintambo zokuxhumana zemikhumbi ehamba ngaphansi kwamanzi olwandle, ukuze   kwande ukuxhumana kanye nokusetshenziswa kwezindlela noma imizila   engasetshenziswa noma enye indlela yokuhambisa okuningi noma okuminyene.
ONA: Open   network architecture: a   telecommunications network configuration and regulatory scheme that allows   companies to provide both basic and enhanced services on condition that they   offer certain basic network functions on an unbundled, equivalent basis to   all affiliated and unaffiliated enhanced service providers.   Cross-subsidisation between monopoly (basic) and enhanced services is   prohibited, and accounting and reporting schemes are to be implemented.  ONA: Open   network architecture: Lokhu kuchaza   umdwebo owujikelele noma osemqoka wezinto zezindlela zokuxhumana zezithwali   zokuxhumana ezisemqoka. Ukuhlelwa kwezinto eziningi ngendlela yokuxhumana   eyinhlanganisela kanye nemithetho evumela izimboni ukuthi zibhekele   lezozidingo ezisemqoka kanye nalezo zidingo ezandisiwe ngombandela noma   ngenxa yokuthi zizoletha izidingo ezisemqoka zemisebenzi yokuxhumana   ngendlela yokuhlukanisa ngokulinganayo kwabobonke abangama lunga nabangewona   abhekene nezidingo ezinwetshiwe. Ukulekelelwa okushintshanisayo phakathi   kwezidingo ezisemqoka kanye nalezo ezinezezelwe ezivimbezelekile kanye   nezinhlelo zokubala kanye nokubika izinhlelo ezizoqalwa.
on-cost:   This is the additional cost of staff, over and above the actual salary,   pension and insurance payments made on their behalf; for example: the cost of   training, time off‑the‑job, etc.  on-cost:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwanda kwezindleko okungadalwa ukuthuthukiswa kwebhizinisi   njengokuqeqeshwa kwezisebenzi. Lokhu kungasho ukunezezelwa kwezindlela   zabasebenzi, ngaphezu kwalezo zindleko zamaholo, impesheni, ukukhokhela   umshwalense othathelwe bona, isibonelo kungaba izindleko zokubafundisa   umsebenzi, isikhathi abasithathayo lapho benza umsebenzi.
one-stop   shopping: The provision of a number of   functions, such as telecommunications network, design, procurement and   management, by a single enterprise as an alternative to the end user   performing these functions or securing the services from a number of   enterprises.  one-stop   shopping: Lokhu kuchaza ukuma endaweni ethile   eyodwa uthenge lopho uzothola konke okudingayo ngale kokuthi uze uhambe uma   kwezinye izindawo ezithengisayo ngenxa yokuthi mhlawumbe awukutholanga konke   obukufuna endaweni yokuqala ome kuyo. Ukubhekelwa kwemisebenzi eminingana   njenge ndlela yokuxhumana ngothelefoni eyinhlanganisela, ukudweba, ukuthola   okuthile, ukuphatha, ibhizinisi ngalinye njenge sisombululo kulabo abenza   lemisebenzi noma ukuvikela izidingo kulawo mabhizinisi amancane.
on-line   database services: The provision of   electronically published machine-readable information that can be accessed   directly by the researcher over a telecommunications network.  on-line   database services: Lokhu kuchaza   ulwazi olugcinwe ngohlelo oluthile kwikhompuyutha futhi olungatholakala noma   inini uma ludingeka. Lokhu kungasho ukubakhona kolwazi olungafundeka kuwona   umshini, ukuze kuthi labo abasuke befuna ulwazi ngesifundo esithile   kwezokuxhumana bakwazi ukuluthola ngaleso sikhathi.
on-line   dialing: A calling arrangement for direct   connections with a pre-arranged billing commitment.  on-line   dialing: Lokhu kuchaza ukushaya uthelefoni   ngaso leso sikhathi. Uhlelo lokushaya uthelefoni olwenza ukuthi uvele   uxhumeke ngaso lesosikhathi. Lokhu ungakwenza ngokuthi uqale wenze isinqumo   sokukhokha.
on-line   editing: A technique for modifying or   manipulating data as it is entered via a terminal. Corrections or   substitutions can be performed.  on-line   editing: Lokhu kuchaza ukulungiswa   kwamaphutha ngaso lesosikhathi.noma ukubhala into ethile bese ithunyelwa   lapho iyakhona ukuze ifike ngaso lesosikhathi. Isu elithile lokulungisa lokho   okungaba amaphutha kulolo lwazi olusuke luqukethwe. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokusebenzisa   yona ikhompuyutha. Kungalungiswa noma kubuywe kufakwe lokho obekusele.
on-line:   Pertaining to equipment or devices directly under the control of the central   processing unit of the computer.  on-line:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuba semzileni noma ukutholakala ngaso lesosikhathi.   Okuphathelene namathuluzi noma imishini ephathelene nokusetshenziswa   kokudluliswa kolwazi ngekhompuyutha esendaweni emaphakathi.
open network architecture (ONA):   The overall design of a communication carrier’s basic network facilities and   services to permit all users of the basic network to interconnect to specific   basic network functions and interfaces on an unbundled, equal-access basis.   The ONA concept consists of three integral components, namely basic   serving arrangements (BSAs), basic service elements(BSEs) and complementary   network services.  open   network architecture (ONA): Lokhu kuchaza   imidwebo ephathelene nohlelo lokuxhumana oluvuleleke noma oluvulelwe bonke   abantu. Umdwebo jikelele wesimo sokuxhumana kwezithuthi ngokwezidingo   ezivumela ukuthi bonke abasebenzisa izidingo ezisemqoka zokuxhumana bakwazi   ukuxhumana ngaleyo misebenzi yokuxhumana ebuye futhi ixhumanise ngendlela   efanayo. Lomqondo we ONA uhlanganise izinto ezintathu okungaba ukuhlelwa   kwemisebenzi, imisebenzi esemqoka engumsuka wakho konke kanye nezidingo   zokuxhumana ezehlukene kodwa kuthi lapho sezibekwe ndawonye zibe nokuvumelana   noma ukuhambisana.
Open   Network Provision (ONP): The European   Commission’s proposal for standardisation of transport service offerings,   network interfaces, and access arrangements among the EC’s member   states.  Basic principles include   non-discriminatory access to networks, transparent network configuration, and   the prohibition of cross-subsidisation.  Open   Network Provision (ONP): Lokhu kuchaza   ukuba nelungelo noma ukunikwa zonke izinto noma izinhlelo zokuxhumana. Lesi   isiphakamiso esenziwa yikhomishani yaphesheya kwezilwandle ezweni lase   Yurophu sokuthi izidingo zezinto zokuhamba zamukeleke, nokuthi kube   nokuhlanganiswa kokuxhumana, kanye nelungelo lokuhlela phakathi kwamazwe   angamalunga ekhomishani yase Yurophu. Kwabekwa nemigomo ebalulekile yokuthi   kungabi khona ukubandlulula lapho kusetshenziswa izintambo zokuxhumana, kube   khona ukuxhumana okunga fihlekile kanye nokuxhaswa okushintshisanayo.
Open   Systems Interconnection (OSI): A model for   organising data processing and telecommunication functions. The seven-layer   model proposed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)   provides a framework for developing protocols that will enable communication   between dissimilar types of computer devices from different vendors.  Open   Systems Interconnection (OSI): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlobo oluthile lokuhlela ukuxhumana ngezindlela ezingafani   eziningi.  Isilinganiso sokuhlela   ukudluliswa kolwazi kanye nemisebenzi yezindlela zokuxhumana. Isilinganiso   esingahlukaniswa ngezingqumbi ezingu 7 noma isikhombisa eziphakanyiswa   inhlangano kazwe lonke yaleyomisebenzi eyamukelekile, okuyiyona enakekela   imithetho esafufusa. Lokho ke kungenza ukuthi kube nokuxhumana phakathi   kwezinhlobo ezingafani zemishini yekhompuyutha kubathengisi abahlukene.
optical fibre:   A filament of transparent di-electric material, usually glass or plastic, and   usually circular in cross section, that guides light. An optical fibre   usually has a cylindrical core surrounded by a cladding.   optical fibre:   Lokhu kuchaza indwangu eyakhiwe ngezintambo eziningi ezincane zase zifakwa   amakhemikhali athile ukuze zikwazi ukusebenzisa uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana   oluhamba ngokusebenzisa ukukhanya. Lezizintambo ke zigoqwa ngento ezokwazi   ukuthi izibonise noma zingaphakathi kuyo ukuze kubonakale ukukhanya   ezikuthwalayo lapho sezisebenza. Ucingwana olubonakalisa lokho okusebenza   ngogesi, noma ngepulasitiki kanti futhi kungaba yindilinga phakathi nendawo   engenza ukuthi kuhlale kukhanya. Lolu cingwana lwakheke lwaba yindilinga   embozekile.
optical   scanner: A device used to recognise different   symbols and characters that are then placed into a control unit for   conversion into a language meaningful to the computer.  optical   scanner: Lokhu kuchaza umshini osebenzisa   ukukhanya futhi osebenzisana nekhompuyutha okwazi ukukopisha noma ukuthatha   ngokubukela imibhalo ethile. Umshini osetshenziswayo ukuze kubonakale   izimpawu ezehlukene kanye nesimo salokho okubekwe egunjini elilawula konke   ukuze kushintshelwe olimini oluzoba nomqondo lapho kukhulunywa   ngekhompuyutha.
orbital   arc: Locations above Earth where   satellites are located after launch. Most communication satellites occupy the   geostationary orbital arc to maximise stability and geographical   coverage.  orbital arc:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo engaphezu komhlaba (emkhathini) lapho kuhlala khona ama   (satellite) ngemuva kokuthi esusiwe lana emhlabeni ngesikhathi ethunyelwa   kuyo lendawo. Izindawo ezingaphezu komhlaba lapho kubekwe khona izinhlelo   ezithwebulayo ngokujikeleza kwemisebe emkhathini ngemuva kokuthi lezizinhlelo   sezivulelwe ukuze zisebenze. Imvamisa zonke izikhungo zokuxhumana   ngaloluhlelo (satellite) zithatha yonke indawo emi ndawonye ngaphezu komhlaba   ukuze kube nokusimama (ukwandisa) kanye nokufinyelela kuyo yonke indawo.
OTC(A):   Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Australia), the Australian   international telecommunications carrier, a government (that is, state-owned)   enterprise.  OTC(A):   Lokhu kuchaza ikhomishani noma isigungu saphesheya kwezilwandle esiphethe   imisebenzi yokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Ikhomishani yokuxhumana noma ephethe   ezokuxhumana yaphesheya nezilwandle ezweni lase Australia, izithuthi   zokuxhumana ngothelefoni zikazwelonke eAustralia, kanye namabhizinisi   kaHulumeni.
other common carrier (OCC):   A communications common carrier — usually an interexchange carrier — that   offers communications services in competition  other   common carrier (OCC): Lokhu kuchaza   ezinye izithuthi ezijwayelekile. Izithuthi ezijwayelekile zokuxhumana,   ngokujwayelekile lezizithuthi zishintshisana nezinye okuyizona ezinikezela   izidingo zokuxhumana ngendlela yokuqhudelana.
out-of-band   signalling: The use of a channel separate from   the one carrying traffic to set up, supervise and bill the call.    out-of-band   signalling: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile   lokuxhumana olungekho emgudwini noma emzileni yokuthumela ngendlela   yokuxhumana. Ukusetshenziswa kwemizila ehlukanisiwe kanye naleyo esuke   ithwele okuminyene, ukuphatha kanye nenkokhelo yokusetshenziswa   kukathelefoni.
output:   Measures of output of information services include quantities of output (for   example, number of items acquired, number of items circulated, number of   searches performed, etc.) and output attributes such as quality of service,   timeliness of services provided, availability and accessibility of materials,   equipment, staff and facilities, etc.

output:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlelwa kanye nokukhishwa kolwazi okuwuhlelo olwenziwa   ngokusebenzisa ikhompuyutha. Isilinganiso sokuhlela izidingo zolwazi   ezihlanganisa inani eliphezulu noma inqwaba yolwazi oluhleliwe (isibonelo   kuyaba inani lezinto ezitholakele, inani lezinto ezijikelezayo, inani   lokufuna lokho osekwenziwe, njalonjalo). Ukuhlelwa kolwazi olube nembuyiselo   njengezinga eliphezulu lezidingo, ukubhekelwa kwezidingo ezinganqunyelwe   isikhathi, ukuba khona kwalokho okungasetshenziswa kanye nelungelo   lokukusebenzisa, amathuluzi abasebenzi, kanye nezidingo njalonjalo.

 

P
 
PABX: Private automatic   branch exchange: a private branch exchange (PBX)   which makes possible some or all connections from extensions without the   services of an attendant.  PABX:   Private   automatic branch exchange: Lokhu kuchaza   isikhungo sangasese sohlelo lokuxhumana oluzishintshayo. Isikhungo sangasese   sokushintshana kothelefolni esenza ukuthi kubelula ukuxhunywa kwabanye   olayini noma imizila yezingcingo eyengeziwe ngaphandle kokuthi kube khona   umuntu ohlalele ukushintshanisa othelefoni noma izingcingo.
packet   switching: A transmission technology that   reduces messages and data into individually-routed packets and reassembles   them before reaching the final destination. The data communications service   divides a data stream into units called “packets” (typically composed of   approximately 200 characters) that are separately routed to a destination   where the original message is reconstituted.  packet   switching: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokushintshana   ngakunye kwalokho okuqoqene ndawonye kwaphinde kwaba kuncane. Ubuchwepheshe bokudlulisa   ukuxhumana obunciphisa imibiko kanye nolwazi oluqukethwe yikhompuyutha,   luhanjiswa kulezozindlela ezingezodwa ziphinde futhi zihlanganiswe ngaphambi   kokuthi zifike lapho ziya khona. Lezizidingo zokuxhumanisa ulwazi zehlukanisa   ukuhamba kolwazi ngendlela eyodwa ebizwa ngama (packets). Lendlela ingaba   nezimpawu ezingu (200 noma amakhulu amabili) ezingahlukaniswa lapho   sezithunyelwa ezindaweni okufanele ziye kuzo lapho othola ukuthi umyalezo   obuthunyelwe ekuqaleni uyashintshwa ubuyiselwe kuleso simo obukuso ekuqaleni.
packet:   A sequence of binary digits found in data communication, including data and   control signals, that is transmitted and switched as a composite whole   arranged in a specific format.  packet:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlela ngokulandelana kwezinto ezimbili ezingafani njengezi   nombolo u (0) no (1) okuthi lapho zithunyelwa ngohlelo oluthile lokuxhumana   zishintshelwe kolunye uhlobo lombhalo. Ukulandelana kwezinombolo ngendlela   yokusebenzisa izinombolo ezimbili okungu (0 kanye no 1) ezitholakala lapho   kuxhunyanwa ngokolwazi, lapho singabala ulwazi olulawulwa izimpawu noma   amasignal adlulisa aphinde ashintshe ngokuphelele lokho okubekwe ngendlela   ethile.
Pan   American Satellite (PanAmSat): The first   licensed US facilities-based international satellite carrier to compete with   INTELSAT.  Pan   American Satellite (PanAmSat): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana lwe satellite olokuqala olunemvume noma ilayisensi   yamazwe aphesheya nezilwandle e Melika. Imvume yokuqala eyatholwa izwe   laphesheya kwezi lwandle elibizwa nge Melika emayelana nezidingo   eziphathelene nezithuthi zohlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebulayo ngemisebe   ejikelezyo emkhathini (satellite) kazwelonke ukuze ikwazi ukuncintisana   nolunye uhlelo lwenhlangano yokuxhumana ebizwa nge (INTELSAT).
parabolic antenna:   An antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector and a radiating or receiving   element at or near its focus.  parabolic   antenna: Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo locingo   olucijile lokumukelisa uhlelo oluthile lokuxhumana. Ucingo olucijile   olubonisayo luphinde lusebenze njengalokho okwamukelayo eduze nalapho   kubhekiswe khona.
PBX: Private   branch exchange: a manually-operated telephone line   switching system owned or leased by an organisation and generally installed   on its premises, which provides lines for internal communication between   local extensions and provides a smaller number of trunks that give access   through the local switch to the public network. The PBX switches and routes   all inbound and outbound calls.  PBX: Private   branch exchange: Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo sohlelo   lokushintshana kwezingcingo sangasese esidinga umuntu ozosebenza kuso ukuze   sikwazi ukuxhumanisa futhi esibolekiwe okwesikhashana. Uhlelo lokushintshwa   noma lokushintshana olusasebenzisa indlela yakudala yezandla noma edinga   izandla. Iye iphathwe noma ibolekwe inhlangano bese ifakwa endaweni yaleyo   nhlangano. Iyona ke eyenza ukuthi kube khona imizila noma olayini bokuxhumana   ngaphakathi kulezo zingcingo noma othelefoni abengeziwe ngaphakathi kanye   nokuthi kube khona inani elincane lothelefoni abayakude ezingenza ukuthi   ubenelungelo lokushintsha lolu lwangaphakathi ucingo noma uthelefoni ukuze   uphumele ngaphandle. Isikhungo ke sangasese sokushintshanisa izingcingo noma   othelefoni samukela zonke izingcingo noma othelefoni abangenayo kanye nalabo   abaphumayo.
PCS: Personal   Communications Services: a family of   radio-communications services provided through personal user radio terminals   operating in a mobile or portable mode. PCS describes a variety of new   terrestrial and satellite-delivered services for hand-held terminals   operating at low power.  PCS: Personal   Communications Services: Lokhu kuchaza   izinhlelo zokuxhumana ezisetshenziswa abantu abathile kuphela. Lapha   kuhlanganiswe ndawonye izidingo zokuxhumana ngendlela yokusakaza ezenzelwe ukuthi   ukwazi ukuzisebenzisela umsakazo wakho ongawulalela ngisho noma uhamba,   emsakazweni okungabalula ukuzihambela nawo. I (PCS) ingachaza izinhlobonhlobo   zalokho okuphathelene nasezweni kanye nokubakhona kwezigcingo zohlelo   lokuxhumana oluthwebulayo ngemisebe ejikelezayo emkhathini (satellite)   ezingasebenza ngisho noma ziphethwe ngesandla.
Pentaconta   Switch: The registered name of a particular   crossbar exchange.  Pentaconta   Switch: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile   oluphathelene nokushintshana noma ukushintshwa kwezingcingo noma othelefoni.   Igama elisemthethweni lokushintshwa kwezingcingo ezithile ezinqamulayo.
performance:   Performance is an indication of how well a service or activity is performed.   It can be measured in terms of the output quantities produced, quality,   timeliness, availability, accessibility, etc. Other indications of   performance are productivity, efficiency (that is, how close services or   activities come to achieving some maximum), etc. Output performance   determines the effectiveness of services. Measures of productivity,   efficiency, etc., are measures that are internal to the service and they are   used to help manage the service provider.  perfomance:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwenziwa komsebenzi. Lokhu kumayelana nokubonisa ukuthi   umsebenzi wenzeka kahle yini. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokukala izinga lalokho   okutholakele, izinga lalokho obekwenziwa, isikhathi esisetshenzisiwe lapho   kwenziwa lowo msebenzi, ukutholakala kwawo lowomsebenzi kanye nokuba   nelungelo njalonjalo.  Enye indlela   yokukala kungaba ukubheka ukuthi ikhona yini inzuzo etholakele ngesikhathi   wenziwa umsebenzi, ikhono lokukwazi ukwenza umsebenzi, Ukuhlela nokwenza   kahle umsebenzi, kufanele kubonise indlela eyimpumelelo yokwenza umsebenzi.   Ukubhekwa kwenzuzo etholakele kanye nokwenza umsebenzi ngendlela eyimpumelelo   kuyizinto ezenziwa ngaphakathi emsebenzini. Lokhu kusuke kwenzelwa ukuthi   kube lula ukuphakela uhlelo olubhekele izidingo zomsebenzi.
Phased   Alternation by Line (PAL): A broadcast colour   television standard implemented in Europe and most of Asia. This system is   currently in use in South Africa.  Phased   Alternation by Line (PAL): Lokhu kuchaza   izinhlobo ezintsha zomabonakude ezibonisa ngemibalabala. Uhlelo lokusakaza   ngomabonakude onemibala. Loluhlelo lwasungulwa yizwe laphesheya kwezilwandle   elibizwa nge Yurophu kanye nakwezinye izindawo eziningi zaphesheya   kwezilwandle njengase Asia. Loluhlelo luyasetshenziswa nalapha e Ningizimu   Afrika.
PKI: Public Key   Infrastructure: a network of connected third-party   certification authorities allowing the movement of data and information   between organisations that have their own security architecture or   system.  PKI: Public Key   Infrastructure: Lokhu kuchaza izidingo ezisemqoka   zomphakathi. Indlela yokuxhumana ehlangene nalabo abaphethe isiqiniseko   seqembu lesithathu (third party) okuyibona abavumela ukuthi kube   nokuthunyelwa noma ukuhanjiswa kolwazi phakathi kwezinhlangano ezinezinhlelo   zazo zokudweba ezivikelekile.
plc:   Public   limited company (UK).  plc:   Public   limited company (UK): Lokhu kuchaza imboni noma inkampani   encane yomphakathi wezwe laphesheya nezilwandle elibizwa nge UK. Igama   lemboni noma inkampani yamazwe aphesheya nezilwandldle abizwa nge UK   yezinhlelo eziphathelene nomphakathi.
point-to-multipoint:   Traffic routing from a single location to many recipients (e.g. video   programming distribution to numerous cable operators).  point-to-multipoint:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuthumela ulwazi noma lokuxhumana okusuka kumuntu   oyedwa endaweni ethile kuye kubantu abaningi ezindaweni ezehlukene. Uhlelo   lokuhanjiswa kolwazi noma kwalokho okuminyene (traffic) kususwa endaweni   eyodwa kuthunyelwa kulabo abalindeleukwamukela (njengo hlelo lwesithombe   esixhunywe kumabonakude, ukusatshalaliswa okubhekiswe kubaxhumanisi   bezintambo ezahlukahlukene).
POTS   (Plain Old Telephone Service): Conventional   telephone services provided to residential and small-business users.  POTS   (Plain Old Telephone Service): Lokhu   kuchaza izinhlelo zezinhlobo ezindala zemisebenzi noma usizo lokuxhumana   ngothelefoni. Uhlelo lokushintshwa kwezingcingo ukuze zikwazi ukusiza abantu   abahleli endaweni kanye nosomabhizinisi abancane.
power   flux density: A measure of power radiated from a   transmitter.  power   flux density: Lokhu kuchaza amandla kagesi agcwele   ngokushintshashintsha. Isikali samandla okukhanya okuphuma kulokho   okudlulisayo.
predatory   pricing: The setting of prices so low that   competitors will be driven out of business.  predatory   pricing: Lokhu kuchaza ukubekwa kwamanani   angadala inzondo noma ubutha. Uhlelo olwenza ukuthi amanani empahla abephansi   ngendlela yokuthi labo abancintisanayo bashiye phansi noma bayeke ukuqhubeka   namabhizinisi abo.
pre-emption:   Assertion of jurisdiction by one regulatory authority that would replace and   dislodge the assertion of jurisdiction by another agency.  pre-emption:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthatha noma ukulawula ukuze kuvimbeleke abanye ekutheni   baphumelele. Lokhu kumayelana nokubekwa komthetho womngcele yilabo abaphethe.   Lokho ke kungenza ukuthi kushintshwe noma kungavunywa ukubekwa komngcele   ngabanye abantu.
price   cap regulation: A method of regulating British   Telecom’s prices whereby a “cap” is placed by OFTEL on the prices of a basket   of services, with annual increases tied to an inflation factor. The FCC has   proposed price cap regulation of AT&T and the BOCs, to replace   rate-of-return regulation.  price   cap regulation: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile   lokulawulwa kwamanani. Indlela yokulawula amanani ezokuxhumana ngothelefoni   ezweni laphesheya nezilwandle elibizwa nge Brithani lapho uthola ukuthi i cap   isimelwe i OFTEL kulawo manani ezidingo. Lamanani ayenyuswa njalo ngonyaka   ukuze akwazi ukumelana namandla okwehla kwemali. I FCC yona iphakamise   umthetho wokulawula amanani emboni ephathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana ebizwa nge   AT&T kanye nenye ebizwa nge BOCs ukuze kushintshwe umthetho wokubuyiswa   kwentela.
price   cap: A form of incentive regulation in   which carriers and regulators agree to replace conventional rate base   regulation for a cap on rates and the requirement that they drop by a certain   percentage each year to reflect productivity improvements as offset by a   measure of overall increased costs to producers. Carriers are permitted to   capture all or part of increased profits.  price   cap: Indlela yokubeka umthetho wokugqugquzela   lapho sithola ukuthi abathuthayo kanye nalabo ababeka imithetho bayavumelana   ngokuthi umthetho wukushintsha kwentela ushintshwe ukuze amanani entela kanye   nezidingo zehle ngezinga elithile njalo ngonyaka ukuze kubonakale inqubekela   phambili yalokho okutholakele. Lokhu ke kungaba isikali sokulinganisa zonke   izindleko ezitholakele. Labo abaphathelene nezokuthutha bavumelekile ukuthi   bathathe konke noma lokho okuyingxenye yenzuzo eyandisiwe.
primary   distribution: The initial sending of a document   from its originator or publisher to more than one destination.  primary   distribution: Lokhu kuchaza ukusabalalisa   okusemqoka. Ukuthunyelwa kokuqala kohlobo lombhalo losuka lapho lusungulwe   khona noma lowo okhipha izincwadi ezizothengiswa azithumele ezindaweni   ezahlukene.
primary   rate interface: The large standard unit of capacity   in an ISDN composed of twenty-three 64-Kbps bearer channels and one 16-Kbps   data channel totalling 1.54 Mbps.  primary rate interface:   Lokhu kuchaza izinga elisemqoka ekubangisaneni endaweni ethize. Izinga   elibanzi lengxenye yomgomo oku (ISDN) ohlangene namashumi amabili nantathu   amashumi ayisithupha nane (64-kbps) isithwali migudu kanye ne yodwa i   (16-kbps) ewuhlelo olusebenza nge khompuyutha lokuqoqa izinhlelo, noma imininingwane   esemqoka olulingana ne (1.54 Mbps).
primary   status: The designation for a particular   radio service that qualifies users for maximum permissible protection from   interference by users of services holding a lower priority.  primary status:   Lokhu kuchaza ubumqoka bezinga. Ukuqoshwa komsebenzi womsakazo othile leyo   evumela abasebenzisi besikali esiphezulu esivumelekile esivikelekile   ekubangisaneni okungadalwa abasebenzisi bemisebenzi ebambe ithuba   eliphansana.
private   line service: A permanent connection between two   customer premises, generally not involving central office switching   operations.  private   line service: Lokhu kuchaza umsebenzi womgudu   oyimfihlo noma wangasese. Ukuxhumana unomphela phakathi kwezakhiwo   zamakhasimende amabili, ngokujwayelekile okungahlanganisi izinqubo   zangaphakathi ehovisi zokushintshanisa noma ukuvulela.
private   line: Dedicated capacity designed to link   a single user with requirements in two international locations. Carriers now   provide “virtual” private lines by partitioning capacity from public networks   through the application of software.  private line:   Lokhu kuchaza umgudu noma ulayini oyimfihlo noma wangasese. Okubekelwe   isisindo esiqoshelwe noma esakhelwe ukuxhuma umsebenzisi oyedwa ngezidingo   ezindaweni ezimbili emhlabeni. Izithwali mandla zinikeza ngokweqiniso imigudu   eyimfihlo noma yangasese ngesisindo sokuhlukanisa ukusukela ezindleleni   zokuxhumana zomphakathi ngendlela yokuzama ukusebenzisa uhlelo oluqukethe   izinhlelo zokusebenza kwekhompuyutha esezichaziwe futhi ezisebenza ngayo   ikhompuyutha.
private   network: Any network used to communicate   within an organisation (as distinct from providing service to the public),   based on a configuration of leased or own facilities.  private   network: Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana   eyimfihlo noma yangasese. Noma ngabe iyiphi indlela yokuxhumana   esetshenzisiwe ekuxhumaneni neqembu (njengehlukile ekuletheni umsebenzi   emphakathini, ekususelweni kokuqoqelwe ndawonye okubolekiwe noma izinto   okungezethu.)
privatisation:   Transfer of a utility organisation (such as a telecommunications   administration) from government ownership to public shareholding ownership;   transfer of financial responsibility from the public sector to the private   sector.  privatisation: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile kungaba   olokudayisa lokudluliselwa kwempahla ethile kungaba izakhiwo obekungezika   Hulumeni, zidluliselwa kumuntu oyedwa noma iqembu elithile elizimele.   Ukudluliswa kweqembu elisemqoka (elinjengo kuphathwa kokuxhumana   ngothelefoni) luthathwa kuHulumeni bese lunikwa umphakathi ozoluphatha   ngokuhlanganyela nokuhlukaniselana ngokwezimali ezifakiwe noma eziyinzuzo,   ukubambisana ezinhlelweni eziphathelene nezimali ekuphathweni uHulumeni ukuze   ziphathwe abazimele.
privatisation:   Wholly or partially converting the incumbent PTT to private ownership. The   privatised enterprise may maintain a monopoly or face varying degrees of   competition from market entrants.  privatisation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuguqulwa kwebhizinisi   noma imboni ethile ebekungeka Hulumeni bese inikezwa umuntu noma iqembu   elizimele. Konke noma ingxenye ekushintsheni umphathi sikhundla (PTT)   ekubeni abe umnini wento ngokuzimele. Imboni eshintshiwe ekutheni ibe   ekaHulumeni ngokuthi inikwe umuntu noma iqembu elizimele ingayigcina imithetho   yonke eyilawulayo noma ibhekane nokushintshashintsha kwamazinga okuncintisana   okuqhamuka kwabasanda ukuba amalunga ezimakethe.
product   differentiation: The creation of differences in   essentially the same type of product by means of branding, packaging,   advertising, variations in quality or design, and so on.  product differentiation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlukaniswa kwezimpahla. Ukwakhiwa noma ukwenziwa   kwezihlukaniso ebumqokeni kokufana kwenhlobo yempahla ngendlela yokuyichaza   ngokuphakathi, ukusebenza kwayo nango kuyichaza ngokwenkampani eyenzile noma   eyakhile, ukugoqwa noma ukuboshwa, ukubonisa noma ukwazisa,   okuyizinhlobonhlobo okusezingeni eliphezulu noma imidwebo ekhombisa isimo   sento ingakenziwa.
productivity:   Productivity is measured as output divided by input. It relates to the   quantity of goods and services produced (output) and the quantity of labour,   capital, land, energy, and other resources that produced it (input).   Productivity is a measure which links input and output The weakness of the   traditional measure of productivity is that there is an interdependence among   amount of input resources, output quantities produced, and other output   measures such as quality, timeliness, etc. For example, a staff member’s   competence will affect both input (amount of time and cost necessary to   perform a service) as well as output (amount, quality, and timeliness of   service).  productivity:   Lokhu kuchaza umkhiqizo noma okwenziwe, okutholakele. Ukukhiqiza noma   umkhiqizo ukalwa njengokungenile ohlukaniswe ngokungenile. Kufaniswa nesimo   noma izinga lezimpahla kanye nemisebenzi eveziwe noma eyenziwe (okungenile)   kanye nezinga noma isimo somsebenzi, imali ebekelwe ukuqala noma iliphi   ibhizinisi, umhlaba, amandla, kanye neminye imicebo ekhiqiza okungenile. Ukukhiqiza   kuyisinyathelo esihlanganisa okungenile kanye nokuphumile. Ubuthakathaka   besinyathelo esiyisiko noma esejwayelekile somkhiqizo okuthi phakathi nendawo   sithembele phakathi kwenani lemicebo noma izinto zokungenile (input),   okuphumayo okuveziwe noma okwenziwe ngesibalo sokuhlukanisa ngobuncane, kanye   nezinye izinyathelo zokuphumayo ezifana nesimo noma izinga, ukugcinwa   kwesikhathi, kanye nokunye (isibonelo) ukubasezingeni lolwazi nokwenza   umsebenzi komunye oyingxenye yabasebenzi okungathintela noma kube imbangela   kukho konke okungenayo (isamba sesikhathi nezindleko okusemqoka ekwenzeni   umsebenzi) kanye nokuphumayo (isamba, izinga noma isimo, nokugcinwa   kwesikhathi somsebenzi).
program:   A set of instructions that tells the computer how to handle a problem or   process data. May be written in machine language, assembly code, etc.  program:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile. Uhla lwezincazelo noma lwemithetho olutshela   ikhompuyutha ukuthi ingayenzenjani inkinga noma ukwenza uhlelo oluqukatha   imibiko, izinhlelo oluhlanganiswa ngekhompuyutha futhi olusebenza ngayo.   Okungabhalwa ngolimi lomshini, noma kube inhlanganisela yombhalo yokufihliwe   (assembly code), kanye nokunye.
program:   A plan or routine for solving a problem on a computer. It consists of a   sequence of instructions used by a computer to do a particular job or solve a   given problem.  program:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile.   Iqhinga, icebo noma okuhlale kwenziwa ukuze kuxazululwe inkinga engatholakala   kwikhompuyutha. Lokhu kuhlanganisa uhla lwemithetho noma izincazelo   ezisetshenziswa ikhompuyutha ukuze yenze umsebenzi othile noma ikwazi   ukuxazulula inkinga enikwe yona.  Iqhinga,   icebo noma okuhlalekwenziwa ekuxazululeni inkinga kwi khompuyutha. Lokhu   kuhlanganisa uhla lwemithetho noma izincazelo okusetshenziswa ikhompuyutha   ukuze yenze umsebenzi othile noma ukuxazulula inkinga enikeziwe.
protocol   conversion: A service that permits communication   between customer premises equipment (CPE) operating with different protocols,   for example, between a personal computer (which usually operates on an   asynchronous protocol) and a host computer operating on the CCITT X.25   protocol.  protocol   conversion: Lokhu kuchaza ukushintshwa   kwemithetho ebalulekile. Uhlelo lokusebenza oluvumela ukuthi kube khona   ukuxhumana phakathi kwamathuluzi noma izixhumanisi ezisezindaweni zabathengi   ezisebenza ngendlela yokulandela imithetho ethile eyehlukene. Lokhu ke   singakufanisa nekhompuyutha yakho (ejwayele ukusebenza ngendlela yokushintsha   kwemithetho ebizwa ngokuthi i (asynchronous protocol) kanye nekhompuyutha   ethwala izinhlelo ezisebenza ngohlelo lwemithetho eku (CCITT X 25).
protocol:   Refers to the highly formalised ground rules that permit two inter-connected   data terminals to initiate the communication process, effect information   transfer, and terminate the communication process. Sets of technology   language rules determine how various components of communications systems   interact and if the built-in protocols of the two terminals differ,   communication between the two cannot take place directly. Also refers to a   standard operating procedure or format.  protocol:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwemithetho ethile okufanele igcinwe ilowo obhekene   nayo. Lokhu kubhekiswe kuleyo mithetho ebekiwe futhi ebalulekile okuyiyona   evumela ukuthi kube khona ukuxhunywa ndawonye kwezinhlelo zekhompuyutha ukuze   kuqalwe uhlelo lokuxhumana, impumelelo yokudlulisa ulwazi kanye nokuqedwa   kwesimo sokuxhumana. Izinhlobonhlobo zemithetho yolimi lobuchwepheshe iyona   eyenza ukuthi izinhlobonhlobo zezingxenye zezinhlelo zokuxhumana zikwazi   ukusebenza ndawonye. Uma kwenzeka ukuthi lemithetho eyakhelwe phakathi   kwalokho okuxhunyiwe iyehlukana, ukuxhumana ke phakathi kwazo zombili akube   kusenzeka ngendlela eqondile. Lokhu ke kubuye kubhekiswe kulesosimo   sokusebenza esihlelekile.
PSTN: Public   switched telephone network: The publicly   available local and long-haul facilities of the incumbent carrier. This   normally refers to a country’s telephone system, including land lines,   exchanges, trunks, central offices, switching centres, and, in some   countries, the telephones.  PSTN: Public   switched telephone network: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lwendlela evulelwe yomphakathi yokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Ukuba khona   kwezidingo zomphakathi zangaphakathi kanye nalezo ezikude eziphethwe izithuthi   ezibalulekile. Lokhu ke kungabhekiswa ohlelweni lwezingcingo zakulelozwe,   lokhu kungafaka imizila kathelefoni yendawo, izikhungo zokushintshwa noma   zokushintshisana kwezingcingo, izingcingo eziya kude emahovisi asiza   umphakathi, izikhungo zokushintshisana, kanti ke kwamanye amazwe kungaba   yizingcingo noma othelefoni nje.
PTC: Pacific   Telecommunications Council: a regional   organisation which draws its membership from government, academia, carriers,   and users for the purpose of promoting telecommunications development in the   Pacific region.  PTC: Pacific   Telecommunications Council: Lokhu kuchaza   umgwamanda noma isigungu somphakathi wamazwe aphesheya kwezilwandle   esiphathelene nezinhlelo zokuxhumana. Inhlangano yendawo ethile ethola   amalunga kuHulumeni. Kungaba abantu abanemfundo ephakeme, izithuthi, kanye   nalabo abazisebenzisela ukuqhuba intuthuko yokuxhumana ngothelefoni esigodini   saphesheya kwezilwandle e Pacific.
PTO: Public   telecommunication organisation:  Acronym for post, telegraph and telephone.   A new designation for PTT administrations. Usually refers to the name given   to the government department or state entity that provides postal and   telecommunications services.  It is   often the incumbent and (mostly) exclusive carrier in most nations that   provides services on a ubiquitous basis, some of which may be subsidised. Can   also refer to a public telecommunications operator, which, in the   United Kingdom, could be any company or entity offering a public   telecommunications service.  PTO: Public telecommunication   organisation: Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano yomphakathi   ephathelene nohlelo lokuxhumana ngothelefoni.    Igama elinqanyuliwe noma elifingqiwe elisho iposi, ucingo kanye   nothelefoni. Ukubizwa ngendlela entsha kwalabo abengamele i (PTT). Ngokujwayelekile   lokhu kubhekiswe kulelogama elinikezwa iminyango kaHulumeni noma lokho   okuphethwe nguHulumeni, okubhekela izidingo zamaposi kanye nezokuxhumana   ngothelefoni. Ngokuvamile kuba yilezo zithuthi ezikhethiwe nezibalulekile   emazweni amaningi okuyizona ezibhekela lezozidingo ezitholakala yonke indawo   ngesikhathi esisodwa, ezinye zazo zisuke zixhaswe uHulumeni. Kungabuye   kubhekiswe kumxhumanisi wezingcingo noma othelefoni bokuxhumanisa umphakathi,   lapho othola ukuthi lena phesheya kwezilwandle e United Kingdom kungaba noma   iyiphi imboni engabhekela izidingo zokuxhumana zomphakathi.
public data network (PDN):   A network established and operated by a telecommunications administration or   other broadcast agency for the specific purpose of providing data transmission   services for the public.  public   data network (PDN): Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lwendlela yokuxhumana lomphakathi oluqoqa izinhlelo noma ikuphi   okubalulekile. Lusebenza ngamakhompuyutha noma luqoqwa ngekhompuyutha   loluhlelo. Indlela yokuxhumana eyaqale yasetshenziswa ngabaphathi   bezokuxhumana ngezincingo noma ezinye izikhungo zokusakaza ezazenzelwe   izidingo ezithile ukuze zibhekele izidingo zokwedluliselwa kolwazi   emphakathini.
public switched network (PSN):   Any common carrier network that provides circuit switching among public   users. Although the term is usually applied to public switched telephone   networks, it could also be applied to other switched networks,e.g.   packet-switched public data networks.  public   switched network (PSN): Lokhu kuchaza noma   yisiphi isithuthi sokuxhumana esibhekela ukushintshwa kwalokho okuphathelene   nogesi emphakathini owusebenzisayo. Yize-ke noma lelitemu livame   ukusetshenziswa ezinhlelweni zokushintshwa kwezingcingo zomphakathi,   lingabuye lisetshenziswe futhi kwezinye izindlela zokuxhumana ezishintshwayo   njengalezo ezinolwazi lomphakathi lokushintshwa ngakunye.
public switched security or emergency   telecommunications services: Those public   switched security or emergency telecommunications services utilising public   switched networks. They may include both interexchange and intraexchange   network facilities (e.g. switching systems, inter-office trunks, and   subscriber loops, etc.).  public   switched security or emergency telecommunications services:   Yilezo zidingo zokuxhumana zomphakathi ezishintshwa ngasese noma lokho   okuvela kungalindelwe okusebenzisa izinhlelo zokuxhumana zomphakathi. Lokho   kungafaka ukushintshisana kwangaphakathi (izinhlelo zokushintsha, izingcingo   zangaphakathi emahovisi, kanye nalokho okuyizintambo zalabo ababakhokhelayo   olayini).
Public   Utility Commission: An agency charged   with regulating telecommunications and other public utility services, usually   within a state of the United States.    Sometimes called a public service commission.

Public   Utility Commission: Lokhu kuchaza   uphiko noma ibhizinisi elibekelwe ukubhekana nezidingo ezisemqoka   zomphakathi. Uphiko lwebhizinisi olukhokhelwa ngokuthi lubeke imithetho   yezokuxhumana nezinye izidingo zomphakathi ngaphakathi eMelika. Ngesinye   isikhathi lolu phiko lubizwa ngekhomishani esiza ngemisebenzi yomphakathi

 

R
 
radio common carrier (RCC):   A common carrier engaged in the provision of a public mobile service which is   not also in the business of providing landline local exchange telephone   service.  radio   common carrier (RCC): Lokhu kuchaza   isithuthi sezinhlelo zomsakazo esijwayelekile.  Isithuthi esijwayelekile esiphathelene   nokubhekana kwezidingo zomphakathi ezingo mahamba nendlwana. Lezi dingo   azikho nje kuphela ebhizinisini elibhekene nemizila ehamba phansi   yokushintshana kwezingcingo noma othelefoni.
RADIO   FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT: See Frequency   management.  RADIO   FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT: Lokhu kuchaza ukuphathwa kohlelo olusebenza   ekuxhumanise ngokuthi ludlulise ngokuphindaphinda ukuxhumanisa ngemisakazo.   Bheka ku frequency management.
radio   frequency spectrum:   See Radio spectrum.  radio   frequency spectrum: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuxhumana olusebenzisa uhlelo olusebenza ngezindlela ezingafani   futhi ezingalingani ekuthumeleni ukuxhumana ngemisakazo. Bheka ku Radio spectrum.
radio interface:   The common boundary between a mobile station and the radio equipment in the   network, which is the boundary defined by functional characteristics,   physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and other characteristics   as appropriate.  radio   interface: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   ngemisakazo. Ukuba khona kwemingcele ejwayelekile phakathi kwalezo zikhungo   ezingo mahamba nendlwana kanye namathuluzi okusakaza asetshenziselwa   ukuxhumana. Lokhu kungasho imingcele ebekwe yacaca ngezimpawu zemisebenzi   yayo, izimpawu zezibonisi noma amasignali kanye nalezo zimpawu ezifanelekile.
radio   paging: A service that provides selective   calling from any telephone through a base station to one or a predetermined   group of radio receivers, which emit an audible, visual, or tactile alert and   sometimes then record a numeric, alphanumeric, or even a short verbal   message.  radio   paging: Lokhu kuchaza ukumenyezwa noma   ukufuneka komuntu ngo hlelo oluthile olusebenzisa imibhalo olufana nemisakazo   emincane esebenzelana nothelefoni. Uhlelo lokubheka lezozingcingo ezingenayo   ezikhethiwe ezisuke zivela kunoma iluphi uhlobo lothelefoni. Lokhu kwenzeka   kulezo zikhungo ezisuke ziqondene nalo loluhlelo. Kokunye ke   kungasetshenziswa amaqoqo asuke eseqokelwe ukwamukela lokho okuthunyelwayo   ngendlela yokusakaza. Kungadluliswa lokho okuzwakalayo, okubonakalayo, noma   lokho okwaziyo noma lokho okubhalwe kwaba yizinombolo, izinombolo ezibhalwe   ngendlela yolimi lwaphesheya kwezilwandle olubizwa ngokuthi isi Griki noma   kube umyalezo omfishane obhalwe ngamagama.
radio   spectrum: The portion of the electromagnetic   spectrum within which frequencies can be generated and detected by electronic   means.  radio   spectrum: Lokhu kuchaza ukuhamba kwezwi emoyeni   ngokungalingani nangokungafani kohlelo oluthile lokusebenza komsakazo.   Ingxenye yokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni esebenzisa amandla kagesi kanye nalokho   okuwu mazibuthe, lapho esithola ukuthi ukuhamba kwezwi emoyeni   kuyaphindaphindeka, kubonakala ngendlela esebenza ngamandla kagesi.
radio   telephone: Any service for transmitting speech   using radio waves but used specifically to denote a mobile telephone service   providing two-way full-duplex voice communication with interconnection,   generally automatic, to the public switched telephone network (PSTN)  radio   telephone: Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana ngohlelo   olusebenzisa ukuxhumana ngemisakazo okuhambelana nohlelo lokuxhumana   lothelefoni. Kungaba noma iluphi uhlelo lokwedlulisa inkulumo ngokusebenzisa   umsakazo lapho kuhamba izwi emoyeni. Kodwa ke lokhu kungasetshenziswa ukuze   kubonise ukuthi izingcingo noma othelefoni abangoma hambanendlwana   bayadingeka ukuze kube nokuxhumana ngendlela ezishintshayo kuleyo miphakathi   esebenzisa uhlobo lokuxhumana olushintshaniswayo.
radio: A general   term applied to the use of radiowaves, essentially denoting   telecommunications by modulation and radiation of electromagnetic waves   utilising a transmitter, receiver, or transceiver used for communication.  radio:   Lokhu kuchaza noma iyiphi inhlobo yomsakazo. Igama noma itemu elijwayelekile   elisetshenziswa lapho kusetshenziswa ukuhamba kwezwi emoyeni okungatshengisa   ukuxhumana ngoku shintshashintsha kwezwi elihanjiswa ngendlela yezinhlayiya   ezincane ezisebenzisa amandla kagesi nalokho okuwumazibuthe,   okusetshenziselwa ukwemukela lapho kuxhunywana.
Ramsey   pricing: Charging users on the basis of their   demand elasticity (i.e. users with plenty of options, including dedicated   facilities and leased lines from a number of carriers, qualify for rates   below that charged users with fewer options).  Ramsey   pricing: Lokhu kuchaza imali ekhokhelwa   imizila yokuxhumana. Imali ekhokhwa ilabo abasebenzisa imizila yokuxhumana.   Lemali ekhokhwayo isuke ikhokhwa ngokwemigomo yokukhula kwezidingo zabo (labo   abasebenzisa imizila basuke benamathuba amaningi okuzikhethela, njenge   zidingo okungezabo, kanye nemizila eqashiwe kulezo zithuthi eziningi   ezehlukene, babuye babenelungelo lokukhokha intela ephansi kuneyalabo   abanamathuba amancane okuzikhethela.
rate   and tariff regulation: Regulation of a   carrier’s prices, often requiring that they be published and be   non-discriminatory. Price cap and rate base regulation are two approaches to   rate and tariff regulation.  rate   and tariff regulation: Lokhu kuchaza izinga   kanye nemithetho yokukhokhwa kwentela. Umthetho wokulawulwa kwamanani   ezithuthi asuke edinga ukuthi asize futhi angabandlululi. Imigomo yemithetho   yamanani kanye nentela yizona zindlela zombili okungalawulwa ngazo ukukhokhwa   kwentela.
rate   base regulation: Regulation of prices that common   carriers charge, based on fixing a rate of return on the carrier’s investment   or rate base.  rate   base regulation: Lokhu kuchaza izinga lesisekelo   somthetho noma isisekelo somthetho wentela. Ukulawulwa kwamanani akhokhwa   izithuthi ezejwayelekile, asuke ebhekiswe kuleyontela engaguquki engaphuma   kuleyonzuzo engatholakala emalini elondolozwe abathuthi.
rate   de-averaging: The regulatory practice of setting   differing rates for a regulated service or service component in response to   differences in costs and usage from one route to another, one city to   another, or one state to another. In a de-averaged rate structure, the rate a   subscriber pays for a particular service from a specific vendor will vary   according to the subscriber’s geographic location.  rate   de-averaging: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlukaniswa   kwezidingo nokusetshenziswa kwazo. Inqubo yomthetho wokubhekwa kwentela   ehlukahlukene yezidingo ezisemthethweni noma uhlobo oluthile lwesidingo   esihlukile ngokwamanani nokusetshenziswa kwazo ukusuka endleleni ethile ukuya   kwenye, ukusuka edolobheni elithile ukuya kwelinye, noma ukusuka ezweni   elithile ukuya kwelinye. Kulezo zinhlelo zokukhokhwa kwentela okungaqoqelwa   ndawonye, intela ekhokhwa yilabo abangamalunga bekhokhela izidingo ezithile   eziphuma kulabo abathile abangabathengi. Ziyehluka kuyengokuthi labo   abangamalunga bahlala kuphi.
rate   rebalancing: The gradual adjustment of price   structures – as between local exchange and long-distance services, for   example, to reduce cross-subsidisation and to align prices more closely with   costs. It is a process aimed at increasing prices for local telephone service   subsidised by long distance revenues and reducing subsidies paid by long   distance service providers.  (see cross-subsidising)  rate rebalancing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukulinganiswa kwamanani okuhweba. Lolu uhlelo lokulinganiswa   kwamanani abizwayo lapho kuhwebelwana ngaphakathi ezweni namanani abizwayo   lapho kuhwebelwana nezindawo eziqhelile. Ngokwesibonelo lokukulinganiswa   kwamanani kungasiza ekwehliseni izindleko zamanani entengo.  Loluhlelo kuhloswe ngalo ukwehlisa   izindleko zokuxhasa ukuhwebelana nezindawo ezikude ngokuthi kukhushulwe   amanani ezindleko zokuxhumana lapho kuhwetshelwana ngaphakathi.
rate-of-return   regulation: A synonym of rate base regulation.    rate-of-return   regulation: Lokhu kuchaza umthetho ongalawula   amanani kokubuyisiwe. Igama elisho into efana nemithetho ephathelene   namanani.
Recognised   Private Operating Agency (RPOA): An   ITU-Approved Designation Of Non-Governmental Telecommunication Service   Providers that confers official recognition and enhances the ability of such   organisations to participate in ITU forums.  Recognised   Private Operating Agency (RPOA): Lena   inhlangano ezimele enikezwe igunya yinhlangano yezokuxhumana ngezingcingo   engekho ngaphansi kukaHulumeni. Lenhlangano yiyona ekwazi ukugunyaza futhi   isize ezinye izinhlangano ukuba zizimbandakanye nezingqungquthela ze ITU
Recommendations   of the CCITT: A collection of recommended technical   and administrative practices relating to international telecommunications   published every four years by the International Telephone and Telegraph   Consultative Committee (CCITT) and generally having the effect of voluntary   international telecommunications standards.  Recommendations of the CCITT:   Lokhu kuchaza iziphakamiso ze CCITT. Lona umtapo weziphakamiso zobuchule   nokuphatha ezimayelana nezokuxhumana ezingeni lomhlaba ezishicilelwa njalo   eminyakeni emine yizinhlangano namakomidi ezokuxhumana azimele ezingeni   lomhlaba futhi eziye zaqikelela ukuthi ezokuxhumana emhlabeni zibe sezingeni   eliphezulu futhi lokhu ziye zikwenze ngokuzithandela.
Regional   African Satellite Communication System (RASCOM):   An affiliation of African telecommunications administrations with plans to   operate a dedicated satellite system after having leased capacity from   INTELSAT.  Regional   African Satellite Communication System (RASCOM):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwezizinda zokuxhumana maphakathi nesifundazwe sase   Afrika. Loluhlelo luyingxennye yezokuphathwa kwezokuxhumana e Afrika iyonke   ilungiselela ukuqondiswa kohlelo lwezokuxhumana olusezingeni, kodwa lokho   kuyokwenzeka kuphela uma i INTELSAT isivumile ukubanikeza isizinda esanele   abazosebenzela kuso.
regulation:   The process ensuring that public utilities such as common carriers operate in   accordance with legal rules. Also the body of rules in a tariff governing the   offering of service by a carrier and including practices, classifications,   and definitions.  regulation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukulawula. Lolu uhlelo uluqinisekisa ukuthi imisebenzi   ebalulekile yomphakathi njenge zokuthutha isebenza ngokomthetho okunye futhi   okubalulekile uhla lwemithetho yokulawula intela ebizwa ezokuthutha futhi   kubuye kubhekwe nezindlela, imigomo yokwehlukanisa kanye nezincazelo   ezisetshenziswa ezokuthutha lapho kwenziwa ibhizinisi
Regulator:   An agency empowered to control and monitor the commercial activities of radio   and television broadcasters, cable system operators, telecommunications   carriers, or any other public utility in the public interest. In South   Africa, the Regulator is the Independent Communications Authority of South   Africa (ICASA).  Regulator:   Lokhu kuchaza umlawuli. Lena inhlangano ezimele elawula ukusebenza   kwabasakazi bethelevishini nemisakazo kuhlanganise nokulawula labo   abaphathelene nezokuxhumana nokuxhunyaniswa kwezinhlelo zomsakazo ne   thelevishini. ENingizimu Afrika lenhlangano yaziwa ngokuthi umnyango   wezokuxhumanisa ozimele wase Ningizimu Afrika.
Remote   Access Data Processing: A service that   allows customer premises equipment (CPE) to interact with a distant computer   via common carrier communications links, usually over the public switched   network (PSTN).  Remote   Access Data Processing: Lokhu kuchaza   ilungelo lokwedluliswa kolwazi. Loluhlelo luvumela amakhasimende ukuba akwazi   ukuxhumana ne khompuyutha ekude ngokusebenzisa uhlelo lokuxhumana olwaziwa   ngokuthi uhlelo lokuxhumanisa amakhompuyutha.
Request   for Proposal (RFP): A tender offer   soliciting bids by parties interested in securing a contract to perform some   form of work.  Request for Proposal (RFP):   Lokhu kuchaza isicelo sokufakwa kwamathenda. Lolu uhlelo oluqinisekisa ukuthi   izicelo ezifakiwe ziyakwazi ukubatholela izinkontileka zomsebenzi labo   abafake izicelo
re-regulation:   Re-imposition of regulations over the provision of telecommunications   services or facilities. Often viewed as a reaction to deregulation.  re-regulation:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusetshenziswa kabusha kwemithetho. Lokhu ukusetshenziswa   kabusha kwemithetho ephathelene nemisebenzi yezokuxhumana. Lokhu kubhekwe   njengokuphambene nokuqedwa kwemithetho elawula ezokuxhumana.
resale:   The subsequent sale or lease on a commercial basis, with or without adding   value, of telecommunications services leased from a telecommunications   carrier. This encompasses the acquisition of bulk transmission capacity and   other services for subsequent resale to individual users who, singularly, do   not generate the demand for large-capacity offerings. Resellers perform an   arbitrage function and make their profit by acquiring discounted bulk   capacity from underlying facilities-based carriers and repackaging it at   rates less than what an individual user could secure directly from the   carrier.  resale:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuphinde uthengise. Lokhu ukuthengisela ikhasimende impahla   ethize ngokuthi ufake noma ungayifaki inzuzo ezimpahleni ozithenge   kubakhiqizi njengokuthengisela umuntu usizo lwezokuxhumana oluthenge   kubanikazi bezokuxhumanisa. Lokhu kuhlanganisa ukuthengwa ngokwengeziwe usizo   lwezokuxhumana ngenjongo yokuthengisela labo abangakwazi ukuthenga amanani   engeziwe ngenxa yokuthi amakhasimende abo awamaningi kangako. Abathengisi   abazimele benza umsebenzi omkhulu wokuthenga izimpahla eziningi ngentengo   eyehlisiwe ukuze kuthi noma ngabe sekungene zonke izindleko zokulungisa   impahla ngaphambi kokuba idayiswe kodwa kutholakale ukuthi basayenza inzuzo   futhi izimpahla zabo bazibiza ngamanani aphansi uma kuqhathaniswa nawomuntu   nje ozimele.
restructuring:   A change in the structure of rate components for an existing service. Also   refers more generally to major changes in sectoral organisation and in the   ownership of operating entities.  restructuring:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlelwa kabusha. Lolu uguquko endleleni okuhlelwa ngayo   amanani abizwayo lapho kudayiselwana futhi kungabhekiselwa ezinguqukweni   zokushintshwa kwezinhlelo namanani abasebenzi ezinkampanini kanye   nokushintshwa kwabaphathi.
roamer:   An individual desiring to use a mobile telecommunication device (e.g. a   cellular radiotelephone) while away from the location where service is   usually provided. This service is generically termed ‘roaming’.   roamer:   Lokhu kuchaza umuntu osebenzisa uhlobo lohlelo lokuxhumana akwazi ukuthi   ahambe nalo elusebenzisa ngisho noma esekwamanye amazwe. Lona umuntu odinga   ukusebenzisa uhlelo lokuxhumana olungaba isicucwana esincane lukathelefoni   owumahamba nendlwana (isibonelo umsakazo osebenza njengo thelefoni   owumakhalephaketheni) ngesikhathi umuntu othile engekho endaweni ejwayele   ukusiza ngemisebenzi yokuxhumana. Ngakho ke lemisebenzi yokuxhumana   ngalendlela ibizwa ngokujwayelekile ngegama elithi (roaming) ukukhuluma   uhamba okungenzeka kuwo wonke amagumbi omhlaba.
roll-off:   The manner in which signal strength drops off at locations increasingly   distant from the targeted service location.  roll-off:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwehla kwamandla noma ukwemukela ukuxhumana. Lokhu ukwehla   kwamandla okwamukela ukuxhumana okubangelwa ubude bendawo okuxhunyanwa nayo.
RPI: Retail   price index: a measure of general price level used,   for example, in the UK formula for price cap regulation.  RPI: Retail   price index: Lokhu kuchaza isikalo samanani   asetshenziswayo ngokuvumelana. Izwe nezwe lisebenzisa elaso isikali samanani.   Engilandi kunomthetho olawula izikalo zamanani asetshenziswayo.
RPOA: Recognised   private operating agency: a private or   government-controlled corporation (such as AT&T) that provides   telecommunication services in adherence to international telecommunication   conventions. Recognised RPOAs participate as non-voting members of the   CCITT.  RPOA: Recognised private operating agency:   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano egunyaziwe ezimele. Lena inhlangano ezimele okungaba   ekaHulumeni noma kungabi ngeka Hulumeni okuyiyona enikezela ngosizo   lwezokuxhumana ilandela imigomo yezokuxhumanisa ezingeni lomhlaba.   Lezinhlangano zingamalungu angavoti kwi CCITT.
rural radio service:   A public radio service rendered by fixed stations on frequencies below 1000   MHz used to provide public message communication services

rural radio service:   Lokhu kuchaza imisakazo esetshenziswa emaphandleni. Lolu wuhlelo   lukusetshenziswa komsakazo womphakathi olwenziwa yiziteshi zemisakazo ezimele   zisebenzisa imisakazo ekwazi ukudonsa ukuxhumana ngendlela yokusakaza ehamba   ngesivinini esingaphansi kuka 1000 MHz esetshenziselwa ukusakaza eziteshini   zomsakazo womphakathi

 

S
 
satellite access:   The establishment of contact with a communications satellite space station in   a satellite communications system where an Earth station uses a satellite   space station as a signal repeater, i.e. by using its transponder and   occupying an access channel.  satellite access:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana nezizinda ezisemkhathini. Lokhu kusuke kubhekiswe   ekwakhiweni komgudu ozoxhumanisa isizinda sokuxhumanisa esisemkhathini naleso   esisemhlabeni kusetshenziswa i transponder yesizinda esisemhlabeni futhi   ithathe umgudu ozoyixhumanisa nesizinda esisemkhathini.
satellite   beam types: Global-transmission beams have the   maximum geographical illumination, approximately one-third of the entire   globe; hemispheric-transmission beams are shaped to cover an entire   hemisphere (e.g. North, Central and South America or Europe);   zone-transmission beams are shaped to cover one or more portions of a   hemisphere with higher signal strength; spot-transmission beams are shaped to   concentrate signal strength over relatively small but highly populated   locations.  satellite beam types:   Lokhu kuchaza imibani ebhanyaza embulungeni yomhlaba. Imibani ebhanyaza   embulungeni yonke engumhlaba ithwele isilinganiso esingakhanyisa okungenani   ingxenye yesithathu yomhlaba uwonke. Lemibani ebhanyaza emkhathini yenziwe   ngendlela yokuthi ikwazi ukuhlanganisa ezokuxhumana kusukela engxenyeni   emaphakathi, neNyakatho yeMelika noma yase Yurophu. Imibani ebhanyaza phezu   komkhathi yona ingahlanganisa ezokuxhumana maphakathi nomkhathi isebenzisa   izinga elinamandla lokuxhumanisa. Imibani ebhanyazayo yokugcina yileyo   engasebenzisa amandla okuxhumana aqinile endaweni encane kodwa enezizinda   eziningi kakhulu ezokuxhumana.
satellite communications:   A telecommunications service provided via one or more satellite relays and   their associated uplinks and downlinks.  satellite   communications: Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhunyaniswa   kwezizinda zokuxhumanisa ezisemkhathini. Lolu uhlobo lokuxhumanisa olusebenzisa   izingcingo ezedlula kwesinye sezizinda zaso esikwazi ukubangela ukuxhumana   kwaphezulu nokwaphansi.
satellite link:   A radio link between a transmitting Earth station and a receiving Earth   station through one satellite. A satellite link comprises one uplink and one   downlink.  satellite link:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlangana kokuxhunywa kohlelo lwe satellite. (Izindlela   ezisondelene, ezingahlanganiswa noma ezifanayo zokuxhumana ezisezingeni   eliphakeme lesimanje ezihamba emkhathini.) Ukuxhunyaniswa phakathi komsakazo   kanye nesizinda esisemhlabeni lapho kusakazwa khona kanye nokumukela   kwesizinda esisemhlabeni ngendlela eyodwa yokuxhumana yesimanje eseqophelweni   eliphezulu ehamba emkhathini. Indlela yokuxhumana yesimanje futhi esezingeni   eliphezulu ehamba emkhathini exube uhlobo olulodwa lokuxhumanisa ngoku   bhekisa phezulu kanye nohlobo olulodwa lokuxhumanisa ngendlela ebhekise   phansi.
satellite network:   A satellite system or a part of a satellite system, consisting of only one   satellite and the reciprocating Earth stations.  satellite   network: Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana   esezingeni eliphezulu yesimanje ehamba emkhathini futhi exube ezinye   izindlela zokuxhumana ezifana nayo zaba into eyodwa. Uhlelo lokuxhumana   lwesimanje olusezingeni eliphezulu oluhamba emkhathini noma ingxenye yalo   ehlanganise ingxenye eyodwa yaloluhlobo lokuxhumana kanye nokunikezelana   ezizindeni ezisemhlabeni.
satellite system:   A space system using one or more artificial Earth satellites.  satellite system:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwasemkhathini olusebenzisa indlela eyodwa noma eziningi   eziwumfaniso wezinga lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula kwemisebe ejikelezayo   emkhathini.
satellite:   A body of material which revolves around the Earth or other planet and which   has a motion primarily and permanently determined by the force of attraction   of that other body, essentially because they have the same centre of gravity.  satellite:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebulayo ngemisebe ejikelezayo   emkhathini. Idlanzana lezicucu ezijikeleza umhlaba noma eminye imihlaba   emkhathini eba sesimweni sokushintsha izikhundla ngokwesiqiniseko kanye   nonomphela ezibalulwa izimpoqo zokudonseka kwezinye izicucu, ngokusemqoka   ngoba zidlala inkundla efanayo noma ziba sezingeni elilinganayo.
S-band:   The portion of the frequency spectrum around 2 GHz used for terrestrial   microwave and some mobile-satellite applications.  S-band:   Lokhu kuchaza esizindeni noma esikhumulweni sohlelo oluthize olumukela   emoyeni. Lena ingxenye yesivinini sokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni` noma ukuxhumana   ngezwi emoyeni ngokungafani noma ngokungalingani ekujikelezeni isikhumulo   sesibili i GHZ esetshenziselwa ukuhambisana nenye inhlobo entsha yesimanje   futhi eseqopelweni eliphezulu emhlabeni wonke ekuthumeleni izwi kanye nezinye   ke izindlela zomahamba nendlwana abaqukethe ukuxhumana kohlelo oluthwebulayo   ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini.
security or emergency preparedness   telecommunications:   Telecommunications services that are used to maintain a state of readiness or   to respond to and manage any event or crisis (local, national, or   international) that causes or could cause injury or harm to the population,   damage to or loss of property, or degrade or threaten the national security   or emergency preparedness status of a country.  security or emergency preparedness   telecommunication: Lokhu kuchaza   uhlelo lokuphepha, lokuvikeleka noma oluphuthumayo ekuzilungiseleni   ukuxhumana ngezingcingo. Lena imisebenzi yokuxhumana ngocingo esetshenziswayo   ukuze sigcine isimo sokuthi sihlale silungile noma sikwazi ukuphendula noma   ukulindela ukuphatha noma ingabe yimuphi umcimbi noma inhlekelele (kungaba   isekhaya, esifundeni, noma emhlabeni wonke jikelele) engabanga noma   okungenzeka ibange ukulimala noma ukuhlukumezeka komphakathi, ukulimala noma   ukulahleka kwempahla, noma ukuphoxeka noma ukwesabisa ukuphepha komthetho   kazwelonke noma ukuphuthunywa kokuhlala kulungelwe inhlonipho yezwe.
semi-fixed   costs (Step Costs): Costs that are   fixed at a certain level of activity, but change with large increases or   decreases in activity level.  semi-fixed costs: (Step Costs):   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezinganyakazi noma ezimi ndawonye okwesikhashana.   (Step costs) Izindleko ezinganyakazi noma ezimi ndawonye ezingeni elithile   lohlelo okungenzeka lushintshe noma libe nomahluko ngegebe elithile phakathi   kokuncipha noma kokuba banzi ezingeni lohlelo.
sender-keep-all:   A toll revenue division arrangement whereby the originating carrier keeps all   charges.  sender-keep-all:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi umthumeli uyena ogcina konke. Uhlelo lwentela   oluhlukanisiwe futhi lwase luphinde luyalungiswa ngandlela thize futhi lapho   umsuka ongumthwali kunguyena ogcina zonke izindleko.
sender-pay-all:   A charging mechanism whereby the calling party pays all charges.  sender-pay-all:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi umthumeli uyena okhokha konke.
separate   system: A satellite system that is separate   from the INTELSAT co-operative and provides international services.  separate system:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluhlukene. Lolu uhlelo lokuxhumana lwesimanje   olusezingeni eliphezulu emhlabeni jikelele oluhamba emkhathini noma emoyeni   futhi oluhlukene nenye inhlobo yohlelo yokuxhumana yesimanje esezingeni   eliphezulu emhlabeni jikelele ehamba emkhathini noma emoyeni evumelana noma   esinika imisebenzi kazwelonke.
Sequential   Colour with Memory (SECAM): A French-developed   broadcast television standard adopted in France, French-speaking African   nations, and the former Soviet Union.  Sequential   Colour with Memory (SECAM): Lokhu kuchaza   umbala ohlelwe ngendlela ethize futhi onesikhumbuzo. Izinga lesi French   (ulimi olukhulunywa phesheya kwezilwandle ezweni lase Fransi) lobuhlakani   noma ukwandiswa kolwazi lokusakaza kumabonakude elithathwe eFransi, izizwe   zase Afrika ezikhuluma ulimi lwesi French kanye nezwe kuqala elalibizwa   ngokuthi iSoviyethi Union.
services:   In telecommunications, the sum of all acts and facilities necessary to   exchange information. Bearer service and teleservice are types of   telecommunication services.  services:   Lokhu kuchaza igama elimele imisebenzi,.usizo, kanye nokunye. Ekuxhumaneni   ngezingcingo isamba sazo zonke izinyathelo kanye namathuluzi asemqoka   okushintsha ulwazi. Umuntu ophethe noma oqashelwe ukwenza umsebenzi kanye   nohlobo lwemisebenzi ehambisana nokuxhumana ngezingcingo. Lezi ke ezinye   izindlela zokuxhumana ngezingcingo ngokomsebenzi.
settlement   rate: The unit of currency and percentage   division negotiated by carriers for settling accounts regarding carriage of   inbound international traffic. Typically, international carriers on direct   routings equally divide the negotiated rate.  settlement   rate: Lokhu kuchaza isikali sesivumelwano   noma okuchaza ukuthi isivumelwano sibekwe kuliphi izinga. Ingxenye yohlobo   oluthize lwemali kanye nezinga elihlukanisa abathwali noma abathuthi   ababonisene noma abavumelene ngaso ekukhokheni izikweletu ezimaqondana   nokuthwala kwangaphakathi kwentela yomhlaba. Njalo nje noma yinto   eyejwayelekile ukuthi abathuthi noma abathwali emhlabeni abasezindleleni   eziqondile bahlukanise ngokulinganayo izikali osekuvunyelwene ngazo.
sideband:   In amplitude modulation (AM), a band of frequencies higher than or lower than   the carrier frequency, containing energy as a result of the modulation   process. AM has two sidebands: the frequencies above the carrier frequency   constitute what is referred to as the “upper sideband”;   those below the carrier frequency, constitute the “lower   sideband.” In conventional AM transmission, both sidebands are   present. Transmission in which one sideband is removed is called “single-sideband   transmission.”  sideband:   Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo noma isiteshi sokuxhumana okungaba esomsakazo   esiseceleni noma saseceleni. Ekwandiseni (izwi noma umsindo) kungaba   semsakazweni) ngokuqondanisa kungaba inombolo ethize yesikhungo noma isiteshi   esithile esibizwa nge AM emsakazweni ukushintsha noma ukugudluza isikhumulo   noma isiteshi sezikali ezinyakazayo okungaba ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi   kwalokho okuthwala isikali sokunyakaza, esinamandla ngenxa yohlelo loku   gudluzwa noma ukushintshwa. AM Inezikhungo noma iziteshi eziseceleni noma   zaseceleni ezimbili: izishintshi ezinga phezu kwezithwali zishintsi zimele   okufaniswe noma okubizwa “ngesikhungo noma isiteshi saseceleni   ngaphezudlwana”, lezo ezingaphansi kwe sithwali sishintshi, esimele,   “isikhumulo noma isiteshi saseceleni esingaphansi.” Ekuvumelaneni   ngokuthumela i (AM) zonke izikhumulo noma iziteshi ezikhona. Ekuthumeleni   lapho esinye sezikhungo saseceleni sisusiwe kubizwa ngokuthi “ukuthumela   ngesikhungo noma isiteshi esisodwa saseceleni.”
Signaling   System 7 (SS7): An advanced method for providing   software-defined signaling necessary to set up telecommunication links.  Signaling System 7 (SS7):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lophawu lokubonisa noma olubonisa ukusebenza   kohlelo lokuxhumana oluthile. Indlela ethuthukile noma esezingeni eliphezulu   eletha okuqukethe izinhlelo zokusetshenziswa kwamakhompuyutha futhi   osekuchaziwe kubonisa noma kutshengisa isidingo sokusungula ukuxhumana   ngohlelo lwesimanje ngothelefoni.
signatory:   A company or government that has executed a binding legal commitment (e.g.   Comsat serves as the sole US signatory to INTELSAT and Inmarsat).  signatory:   Lokhu kuchaza umuntu onemvume yokusayina noma osayine isivumelwano esingaba   phakathi kwakhe nanoma ubani. Leli iqembu noma inhlangano yezishayamthetho   esungule noma eshicilele imithetho noma izinqumo eziphoqayo futhi   ezisemthethweni (isibonelo nge qembu noma inhlangano ebizwa ngokuthi iComsat   okuyiyo yodwa emazweni aphesheya esayina noma enemvume yokusayina   emihlanganweni yezinhlelo ze INTELSAT kanye ne Inmarsat).
Single   Europe Act: Legislation adopted by the   constituent members of the European Community agreeing to closer   collaboration and harmonisation of laws, policies and regulations.  Single   Europe Act: Lona umthetho   oyisinqumo esisodwa owasungulwa phesheya ezweni elibizwa nge Yurophu. Lona   umthetho osetshenziswa isigungu sabakhethiwe besishaya mthetho sephalamende   lomphakathi waphesheya nezilwandle e Yurophu ebizwa ngokuthi umphakathi wase   Yurophu ekuvumelaneni ngokubambisa okuhlangene nokugcinwa noma ukuhlonipha   imithetho, amacebo kanye nemithetho ebekiwe.
single-sideband (SSB) transmission:   Sideband transmission in which only one sideband is transmitted. The carrier   itself may be suppressed.  single-sideband   (SSB) transmission: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo   lwesikhungo noma isiteshi esisodwa saseceleni nokuthumela kwasemkhathini,   noma ngokomoya kumabonakude noma emsakazweni. Uhlelo lwaseceleni lwesikhungo   noma isiteshi nokuthumela kwasemkhathini noma emoyeni lapho ingxenye eyodwa   yohlelo lwesikhungo noma isiteshi saseceleni sithunyelwa khona. Isithuthi   qobo lwaso ngeke siqondakale noma sazeke.
SITA:   The acronym for the State Information Technology Agency in South Africa. SITA   is a government-funded service provider to the government, providing a variety   of essential communications and data processing services to its members via   its communications network backbone.  SITA:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthize lokuxhumana oluphethwe futhi laxhaswa   uHulumeni. Izimfihlo zolwazi lophiko lobuhlakani bezwe lase South Africa. I   SITE lena umnyango noma uhlelo oluxhaswe uHulumeni futhi olusetshenziswa   uHulumeni, oluletha noma olusiza ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ezisemqoka   zokuxhumana kanye nokuqoqa imibiko nakho konke okwenzekayo nokwenzekile   mayelana nemisebenzi eyahlukahlukene ngobuchwepheshe bezinga lesimanje,   ngamakhompuyutha lokhu ke kube sekuyathunyelwa kulabo abamalunga ngohlelo   lwesimanje lokuxhumana olubizwa phecelezi noma eliqanjwe ngethambo elithize   elitholakala emzimbeni ezithweni zangemuva kumuntu kwesinye isikhathi   leligama lichaza ubuhlakani (back bone).
smart   card: A credit card-sized instrument   containing microchips and associated electronics for providing credit and   other data for facilitating transactions.  smart   card: Lokhu kuchaza uqwenjana olwakhiwe   futhi lwaba isilinganiso esincane ngepulasitiki lwase lwenziwa imigilingwane   yohlelo lobuhlakani ukuze likwazi ukusebenza esikhundleni semali noma lisize   ekutheni uthole imali emishinini yokukhipha imali emabhange futhi liyasiza   nakweminye imininingwane noma izinhlelo ezihambelana noma ezisebenza   ngamakhompuyutha.
software:   The necessary complement to hardware; the collection of programmes and   routines associated with a computer.    Two broad functional categories are systems software and application software.  software:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluseqophelweni eliphezulu lesimanje futhi loluhlelo   luqukethe izinhlelo ezizichazayo ngokusebenza noma zokusetshenziswa   kwamakhompuyutha. Lokhu kuyisidingo esihambisana nohlelo oluphakathi   kwikhompuyutha noma singathi amathumbu ekhompuyutha enza ukuthi ikwazi   ukwenza umsebenzi wayo, ukuqoqana kwezinhlelo kanye nemigudu noma imisebenzi   ejwayelekile yansuku zonke efaniswa noma ezihlanganisa nekhompuyutha.
software-defined   network: The use of software to partition transmission   capacity from public networks for private use, making it appear as the   functional equivalent to capacity dedicated for a single user.  software-defined   network: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana   olusezingeni eliphezulu lesimanje oluthwala kuphela noma oluqukethe izinhlelo   zokuxhumana ngamakhompuyutha. Lokhu ukusetshenziswa kwengxenye yaloluhlelo   isinqumo noma umgomo wokuthumela ukuxhumana emphakathini lokhu   kungasetshenziselwa izimfihlo, kungenziwa ukuthii kubukeke nje ngomsebenzi   olingana nesinqumo noma umgomo obekelwe noma ogcinelwe umsebenzisi oyedwa.
sovereignty:   Recognition of independence and legitimacy in a nation’s determination of   policies, laws, and regulations affecting its citizens and internal   affairs.  sovereignty:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenza, ukubusa, ukuphatha, noma ukwenza nomayini ezweni   ngokukhululekile. Lokhu ukuvunywa kokuzimela kanye nokuba semthethweni   yemigomo yokuzibusa esizweni, imithetho, kanye nokulungiswa okuthintana noma   okuphathelene nezakhamuzi kanye nezindaba zangaphakathi noma izindaba   zasekhaya.
space   station: A satellite or other device that   operates in space.  space   station: Lokhu kuchaza isikhungo noma   isizinda esisemkhathini okungaba esokuxhumana ngokomoya emsakazweni noma   ngokukamabona kude, amakhompuyutha noma ingayiphi enye indlela yokuxhumana.   Uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokuthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini lwesimanje   olusezingeni eliphezulu emhlabeni jikelele oluhamba emkhathini noma emoyeni   noma ezinye izinhlelo zokuxhumanisa, izinhlayiya zokuxhumana ezisebenzela   emkhathini.
SPC: Stored-programme   controlled exchange: a switching   system in which the control logic is stored in software form in the memory of   one or more digital computers. Changes can readily be made to such a system –   to provide new services, for instance – by altering or replacing the   software.  SPC: Stored-programme   controlled exchanged: Lokhu kuchaza   izinhlelo ezithize ezigciniwe esiteshini noma esikhungweni lapho ziyeziphume   khona ngokushintshana uma sezisetshenziswa noma zidingeka. Lolu uhlelo   oluzishintshayo futhi oluzichazayo oluqhuba noma oluchushisa okunomqondo   lapho kugcinwa khona ohlelweni olusezingeni eliphezulu lwesimanje emhlabeni   oluqukethe lonke ulwazi ngamakhompuyutha noma ukuthi asebenza kanjani.  Lokhu ke kube sekuyagcineka noma kuyakheka   emqondweni noma enkumbulweni yekhompuyutha noma amakhompuyutha asebenza   ngezinamba. Ushintsho lungalindeleka olungenziwa kuloluhlelo-ukuze   kutholakale imisebenzi emisha, njengokuthi nje kushintshwe noma kufakwe   uhlelo olusezingeni eliphezulu lwesimanje emhlabeni oluqukethe izinhlelo   ezingaphathelana noma ezokusebenzisa ikhompuyutha (data).
Special   Drawing Rights (SDR): An aggregation of   national currencies administered by the International Monetary Fund and often   used by international carriers in settling toll revenue accounts.  Special   Drawing Rights (SDR): Lokhu kuchaza   izimvume ezisemqoka eziphathelene nemidwebo yohlelo oluthile. Uhlelo   lokuhlanganisa ndawonye uhlobo lwemali olusetshenziswa isizwe sendawo ethile.   Lolu hlobo lwemali lusuke lwenganyelwe noma luphethwe yilabo abaphethe   izimali ezweni lonke. (International Monetary Fund) Ivame ukusetshenziswa   abezokuthutha lapho bekhokha izikweletu zentela ezidaleka lapho kuhanjwa.
specialised common carrier (SCC):   A common carrier offering a limited type of service or serving a limited   market.  specialised   common carrier (SCC): Lokhu kuchaza   izithuthi noma izithwali ezijwayelekile ezenza umsebenzi othile kuphela.   Isithuthi esijwayelekile esinikeza izinhlobo ezithile zezidingo noma   imisebenzi ebhekene nezimakethe ezithile noma ezisebenzela imakethe encane.
spectrum   allocation: The designation of a frequency band   to one or more specified services by the ITU and by individual nations.  spectrum   allocation: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokunika noma   ukwaba ngokungalingani nangokungafani okungaba okuphathelene nohlelo oluthile   lokuxhumana. Uhlelo lokudwebeka kokuphindaphindeka kwezwi emoyeni noma   kwezinye izidingo eziqondene ngqo nalezo ze (ITU) kanye nezizwe ngazinye noma   ngokuhlukana kwazo.
spectrum   allotment: The designation of specific channels   of operation to particular localities.  spectrum   allotment: Lokhu kuchaza indawo elungiselwe   ukuhamba kohlelo olusebenza ngokungalingani nangokungafani lapho kuthunyelwa   ngendlela yokuxhumana. Uhlelo lokudweba lokho okuqondene ngqo nemizila   esebenza endaweni ethile.
spectrum   assignment: The grant of operational authority   that includes a licence to operate on a specific frequency.  spectrum   assignment: Lokhu kuchaza umsebenzi obekelwe   noma onikwe uhlelo olusebenza ngokungafani nangokungalingani lapho   kuthunyelwa ngendlela yokuxhumana. Ukunikezwa kwegunya lokusebenza   elinelungelo lokusebenza endaweni ethile yokusakaza.
spectrum:   A range of frequencies used in telecommunications. The entire range of   electromagnetic frequencies is capable of traversing space without the   benefit of physical interconnection.  spectrum:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo olusebenza ngokungalingani nangokungafani oluthumela   uhlobo oluthile lokuxhumana. Izinhlobonhlobo zokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni lapho   kuxhunyanwa ngendlela yokusakaza. Zonke izinhlobo zokuhamba kwezwi emoyeni   zisebenzisa indlela kagesi kanye nomazibuthe zingakwazi ukunqamula emoyeni   ngaphandle kokuthi zize zixhunywe ngezandla.
speed   conversion: The conversion of the modulation   rate of the received signal to a different modulation rate suitable for   subsequent equipment.  speed conversion:   Lokhu kuchaza ukushintshwa kwejubane. Ukushintshwa nokulungiswa kwezinga   lokuhamba kwezwi emsakazweni elitholakala ngokudonsa amandla asuke   elungiselwe lokho okusuke kuzosetshenziswa.
spread   spectrum: A transmission technique whereby   signals are transmitted over a range of spectrum at low power with messages   handled by assigning a discrete sequence of code or by hopping over different   frequencies.  spread spectrum:   Lokhu kuchaza ukusabalala kokusebenza kohlelo oluthumela ngokungalingani   nangokungafani ekuxhumaniseni okuhlukahlukene. Isu lokudlulisa izwi emoyeni   lapho uthola ukuthi lokho okuyizimponjwana amasignals) zokudonsa emoyeni   zidluliselwa emazwini asemoyeni ahlukene, ngokwezinga eliphansi lemibiko   ephathwa ngokuthi inikezwe lokho okuyimfihlo yabathile noma kwenziwe   ngokungabambeleli ekusakazweni noma ekusakazeni kwasemoyeni okunhlobonhlobo.
State   Enterprise: A commercial or industrial   undertaking owned and operated by the state.  State Enterprise:   Lokhu kuchaza ibhizinisi eliphethwe uHulumeni. Amabhizinisi noma izimboni   eziphathwa zibuye zilawulwe uHulumeni.
state-of-the-art   report: A comprehensive analysis of currently   available knowledge on the status of a particular subject, frequently written   for the use of a specific reader.  state-of-the-art report:   Lokhu kuchaza umbiko owenziwe ngobuchwepheshe bobuhlakani, ngokuqikelela   nangobunono, futhi ohlanganise konke okudingekayo. Ukucwaninga okuwujikelele   ngolwazi olukhona mayelana nesimo sesifundo esithile esisuke sibhalelwe   sisetshenziswe othile ofundayo.
station   keeping: The use of jets aboard a satellite   to keep it “on station” (i.e. in the prescribed orbital location with   antennas properly aimed).  A   station-kept satellite eliminates costly tracking requirements for each Earth   station pointing at the satellite.    Satellites typically reach end of life when station-keeping fuel has   been used up, even though the electronic and power generation components   remain operational.  Operators may   conserve station-keeping fuel to extend a satellite’s usable life through the   use of manoeuvres that allow the satellite to drift slightly.  station keeping:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuba sesikhungweni esisemkhathini sohlelo oluthile   lokuxhumana. Ukusetshenziswa kohlobo oluthile lwendiza olugitshelwa   ngokusebenzisa i(SATELLITE) noma uhlelo lokuxhumana oluthwebula ngemisebe   ejikelezayo emkhathini ukuze loluhlelo luhlale kuso lesisi khungo endaweni   eyenzelwe ukujikeleza ngokusebenzisa kahle izinkomba noma lokho okwemukelayo   (antennas). Loluhlelo lwe (satellite) olugcinwe esikhungweni lunciphisa   izindleko ezisuke zidingeka uma ifunelwa isikhungo esisemhlabeni ngasinye   esisuke sibhekiswe kulo loluhlelo lwe (satellite) Ngokuvamile lezizinhlelo   zama (satellite) ziphelelwa isikhathi, uma ngabe uwoyela noma amafutha   agcinwa esikhungweni esephelile, yize noma kusuke kusasebenza lokho okwakha   amandla kagesi. Labo abasebenzayo bangakwazi ukugcina uwoyela noma amafutha   kulezo zikhungo zawo ukuze bandise isikhathi sokusebenza kohlelo lokuxhumana   lwe (satellite). Lokhu bangakwenza ngokushintshashintsha okungavumela ukuthi   loluhlelo lwe (satellite) lunyakaze kancane.
STD: Subscriber   trunk dialling or direct distance dialing (DDD):   a telephone exchange service that enables the telephone user to call other   subscribers outside his/her local area without operator assistance.  STD: Subscriber trunk dialing or direct   distance dialing (DDD): Lokhu kuchaza   ukusetshenziswa kukathelefoni okuqondile lapho kushayelwa zindaweni ezikude.   Uhlelo lokushintshwa kothelefoni olwenza ukuthi lowo ofonayo akwazi   ukukhuluma ngothelefoni nalabo abakude naleyondawo ahlala kuyo, ngaphandle   kokusizwa yilabo abangabaxhumanisi bezandla bothelefoni.
store   and forward: The use of computerisation to store   traffic temporarily for subsequent transmission in batches or efficiently   loaded packets. A satellite may store messages until it reaches a point in   its orbit where the traffic can be downlinked.  store and   forward: Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenzisa   i-khompuyutha ukugcina imiyalezo; kumbe izinto zokwazisa ngezinto ezithize.   Kushiwo lapho imiyalezo noma izinto ezingukwazisa zigcinwa isikhathi   esingengakanani, zizobuye zithunyelwe phambili ngendlela enobuchule noma   ubuhlakani. Imiyalezo leyo yenziwa imiqulu ethile ilungiselwe ukuthunyelwa.   Imiyalezo ethunyelwayo ingagcinwa ngesathelaythi; ize ifike endaweni leyo   emkhathini lapho kwenza kube lula ukuyihambisa ezindaweni esuke iphikelele   kuzo; lapho abanikazi bemilayezo bebe sebeyithola kalula.
strategic   alliances: Corporate business relationships   designed to tap the comparative advantages and expertise of the participants   as well as to achieve a broader geographical marketing presence.  strategic alliances:   Lokhu kuchaza ubudlelwano bezimboni ezithize. Izinkampani ezithize ziyaye   zixhumane nozakwabo, zixoxisane ngezindlela ezinenzuzo kuzona zombili   kuyenzeka kube ngaphezu kwezinkampani ezimbili ezixoxisanayo. Lezizinkampani   ezixoxisanayo ziye ziphakelane nangezindlela ezingu-ngqaphambili kumbe   ezivelele zokwenza umsebenzi kalula, nangendlela engenazo izindleko ezinkulu.   Izinkampani ezixoxisanayo zikwenza lokhu ngethemba lokuhlangana ukuze   umsebenzi wenkampani enkulu eziyakhayo ukwazi ukwenabela ezindaweni lapho   bezingakwazi ukufinyelela khona kade zingahlangene.
structural   separation: Refers to the setting up of a   separate but affiliated company to provide a specific line of business.   Structural separation is one approach to dealing with cross-subsidisation or   undue preference.  structural separation:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye ethize yenkampani ephansi kwenkampani enkulu. Kushiwo   ukumisa ingxenye ethize yenkampani ephansi kwenkampani enkulu; ukunikezela   ilungelo lokuthi ingxenye ibambe iqhaza ekuthuthukiseni umsebenzi othile.   Izinkampani zikwenza lokhu ukwethula umthwalo engxenyeni yenkampani engenisa   umnotho kodwa umnotho wayo omuncwa izingxenye ezingawungenisi umnotho.
studio-to-transmitter link (STL):   A communications link used for the transmission of broadcast material from a   studio to the transmitter, usually by microwave, radio or landline link.  studio-to-transmitter link (STL):   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhamba kwemiyalezo isuswa egumbini lokusakaza iya kwezinye   izindlela zokusakaza ngomoya. Umgudu wezokuxhumana osetshenziselwa ukusakaza   imiyalezo esuke isuswa egumbini lokusakaza, iyiswa ezindleleni ezisakaza   ngomoya; kwesinye isikhathi kungaba imigudu ehamba ngamakhebula emhlabathini.
Submarine   Cable Landing License Act: An Act of the US   Congress requiring the FCC and State Department to grant licenses to land a   submarine cable on US soil. Foreign carriers will receive such grants only if   US-owned and operated submarine cables can make landfall in the foreign   country.  Submarine Cable Landing License Act: Lokhu kuchaza umthetho onikeza imvume yokufaka amakhebula   ahamba ngaphansi kolwandle. Umthetho   kaKhongolose waseMelika; oqiniseka ukuthi inhlangano kazwelonke yezokubusa   noHulumeni bama-provinsi (states) aseMelika anikeze amalayisense okufaka   amakhebula ahamba ngaphansi kolwandle emhlabeni wombuso waseMelika.   Izinkampani ezivela ngaphandle kwelaseMelika ezenza umsebenzi wokuthwala   imiyalezo zithola ukuxhaswa ngezimali uma izinkampani zaseMelika kuphela nazo   zingaba nelungelo lokufaka amakhebula ahamba phansi kolwandle kwamanye   amazwe.
subscriber   loop: A link between equipment in a   subscriber’s premises and the telecommunication centre providing the required   services.  subscriber loop:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana phakathi kwalowo ozikhokhelayo izidingo zokuxhumana.   Ukuxhumana phakathi kwalokho okuxhumanisayo endaweni yekhasimende kanye   nomzila wezokuxhumana ophakela izidingo ezithumela imiyalezo njengokudingwa   yikhasimende kwezokuxhumana.
substitutable   products: Products that can replace and   compete with each other (e.g. tea instead of coffee and Centrex instead of   private branch exchanges).  substitutable   products: Lokhu kuchaza ukusebenzisa enye into   esikhundleni senye. Imikhiqizo ingathatha indawo yeminye imikhiqizo; kumbe   ingaqhudelana neminye imikhiqizo; ngamanye amazwi; umuntu angathenga itiye   esikhundleni sekhofi uma ikhofi lingekho; nakwezokuxhumana amakhasimende   asebenzisa isidingo senye inkampani yezokuxhumana uma esinye isidingo   singekho; kumbe singatholakali.
SWIFT: Society for   Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications:   which operates a computerised telecommunications network to provide automated   international message processing and transmission services between financial   institutions. Owned by the international banking community and operational   since 1977, it connected in early 1989 more than 2 900 destinations in 60   countries. The network is controlled from two operating centres in the United   States and the Netherlands. The society’s headquarters are in Belgium.  SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Interbank   Financial Telecommunications: Lokhu   kuchaza umgwamanda wenhlangano yamazwe omhlaba kwezokuxhumana   ngama-khompuyutha nemigudu eyinhlobonhlobo yezokuxhumana. Lenhlangano   iphakela imiyalezo eqondene nezindaba zokuhwebelana ethunyelwa emabhange   nakwezinye izinkampani zezimali kumazwe ngamazwe. Lenhlangano iphethwe   abezamabhange nezinye izinkampani zezimali kumazwe ngamazwe.  Yaqala ukusebenza ngonyaka ka-1977.   Yaxhumanisa izindawo eziyizinkulungwane eziwu-2 900 emazweni angamashumi ayisithupha   ngokuthumela nokwamukela imiyalezo ikakhulu kwezezimali; nezokuhwebelana   ngemali. Lendawo isebenza ukusuka ezindaweni ezimbili eziseMelika   nase-Netherlands. Ihovisi elikhulu lalomgwamanda lisezweni lase-Belgium.
switch:   The portion of the telecommunications infrastructure where traffic is   received by a device that identifies the intended destination and selects the   routing for delivering traffic onward to that point.  switch:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye ethile yezokuxhumana. Ingxenye kwezokuxhumana eyenza   umsebenzi wokuthwala imiyalezo eyamukelwa umshini okwazi ukubona ukuthi   umlayezo ngamunye uqondiswe kuyiphi indawo, bese ukhetha umgudu lowo okumele   uhambe ngawo ukuze ufinyelele kuleyondawo.
switched multimegabit data services (SMDS):   A connectionless, broadband, packet -switched data service that provides   LAN-like performance and features in metropolitan or wide areas. SMDS   operates at 1.544 Mb/s (megabits per second) or 44.736 Mb/s which are the T1   and T3 rates, respectively, over switched fibre optic networks.  Switched multimegabit data services   (SMDS): Lokhu   kuchaza uhlobo lohlelo lwezokuthwala imiyalezo. Luhambisa   imiyalezo kuleyo migudu esezindaweni ezakhelene (local area networks).   Ivamise ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni ezivulelekile. Lendlela yokuthwala imiyalezo isebenzisa   ijubane kumbe isivinini esingu 1.544Mb/s (se-megabits ngomzuzwana) noma   44.736Mb/s (se-megabits ngomzuzwana); okungango-T1 no T3 wesikali   sokusebenzisa imigudu yezokuxhumana ukuthwala imiyalezo.
switching   node: An installation located at a point   where several data transmission links converge. It serves to direct traffic   from one link to another.  switching node:   Lokhu kuchaza indawo lapho imiyalezo eminingi ifike ihlangane khona.   Ukuxhumana, okufakelwayo endaweni lapho imiyalezo eminingi ifike ihlangane   khona. Lokho okuxhunywayo, kwenzelwa ukuhlanganisa imiyalezo ngobuningi bayo   ukususela kumlayezo uhlanganiswa nomunye.
Synchronous   Optical Network (SONET): Protocols for   operating fibre-optic transmission facilities at very high multi-megabit   speeds.  Synchronous Optical Network (SONET):   Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana esebenza ngendlela efanayo futhi   ephathelene nokukhanya. Izintambo nezincingo ezihambisa imiyalezo   ngokushesha.
System   X: A medium-capacity digital switching system   developed jointly by British Telecom, GEC Telecommunications and Plessey for   use in the public network as a local, trunk, or international exchange.  System X:   Uhlelo lokushintshanisa olusebenzisa izinombolo. Loluhlelo lwaqalwa ukwenziwa   yi British Telecom, GEC Telecommunications, kanye nePlessey.   Ingasetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa imiphakathi eyakhelene neqhelelene namanye   amazwe omhlaba.
T
 
T-1:   A unit of transmission capacity equal to 1.544 Mbps in throughput.  T-1: Isikali   esisodwa esiqukethe cishe ngango 1.544Mbps kwezokuhambisa imibiko, imiyalezo   kanye nolwazi.
tail   circuits: Domestic facilities used to   transport traffic from an international caller to a gateway and from another   gateway to the call recipient.  tail circuits:   Izintambo zangaphakathi kwezwe noma zasekhaya ezithumela imininingwane   yomuntu othumela imibiko engaphandle kwezwe nowamukela imibiko ephuma   kwamanye amazwe.
tandem   office: An exchange used in a large city to   switch traffic between local exchanges that may not be interconnected by   means of direct trunks.  tandem office:   Ukushintshanisa ezokuxhumana. Kuvamise emadolobheni amakhulu lapho   kuxhunyaniswa iziteshi zikathelefoni ezisuke zingahlanganisiwe yimishinyana   ethize kathelefoni ezindaweni eziqhelelene.
tandem   switch: A telecommunication switching   facility with management control over one or more end offices.  tandem switch:   Indlela yezokuxhumana, ukusebenza kwayo okubhekelwa ehovisi noma emahovisi   athize kwelinye icala.
tariff:   A contract for service setting out the terms and conditions under which the   general public will secure service.    tariff:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lohlelo lwentela ethile. Isivumelwano esiqukethe   imininingwane yokusebenza kukathelefoni kuleyondawo. Imininingwane yezindleko   namalungelo njalonjalo.
TAT-8: Transatlantic   Telephone-8: the first optical transatlantic   telecommunication cable brought into service in late 1988 with terminals in   Tuckerton, New Jersey (United States), Widemouth (England), and Penmarch   (France).  The final capacity of this   fully digital cable will be equivalent to 37 800 voice-grade   circuits. The cable is jointly owned by telecommunications administrations   and carriers from several countries.  TAT-8: Transatlantic Telephone-8:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lwendlela ethile yokuxhumana. Indlela eyaba ngeyokuqala   kwezokuxhumana ngezintambo ezihamba ngaphansi kolwandle eyaqala ukusebenza   ekupheleni kuka-1988. Inezintambo eziyimingenela ezweni lase Tuckerton, eNew   Jersey (eMelika), eWidemouth (eNgilandi) nasePenmarch (eFransi). Uma   seyisebenza yonke lentambo yokuxhumana iyalingana namazwi angu 37800.   Lentambo inabanikazi abaphuma kulamazwe amathathu angenhla.
T-carrier:   The generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed   telecommunications carrier systems. T-carrier systems were originally   designed to transmit digitised voice signals. Current applications also   include digital data transmission.  T-carrier:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo oluthile lwezithuthi.    Ukuchazwa kwemibhalo yohlobo oluthile lwezimo zezithuthi zokuxhumana   eziyinxakanxaka ezisebenzisa izinombolo. Lezizithuthi zazakhelwe ukudlulisa   izinkomba zamaphimbo ngendlela yezinombolo. Njengamanje zedlulisa ulwazi   ngendlela yezinombolo.
technical control facility (TCF):   A facility that contains the equipment necessary for ensuring fast, reliable,   and secure exchange of information. It typically includes distribution frames   and associated panels, jacks, and switches and monitoring, test,   conditioning, and orderwire equipment. The personnel there exercise   operational control of communications paths and facilities, make quality   analyses of communications and communications channels, monitor operations   and maintenance functions, recognise and correct deteriorating conditions,   restore disrupted communications, provide requested on-call circuits, and   take or direct such actions as may be required and practical to provide   effective telecommunications services.  technical control facility (TCF):   Lokhu kuchaza ubuchwepheshe bokulawula izidingo, izinto, noma izimpahla. Lolu   uhlelo lokusebenzisa amathuluzi adingekayo ukuze kube nesiqiniseko sokuthi   ayashesha, athembekile kanti futhi angavikela ukushintshisana ngolwazi. Lokhu   kungasho ukusatshalaliswa kwamaframe, amaphaneli, ojeke nalokho okucishizwayo   (switch), kanye nokugadwa, ukuhlolwa, ukulungiswa kanye nalawo mathuluzi   aphathelene nezincingo. Abasebenzi bakulezi zindawo balawula izindlela   zokuxhumana kanye nezidingo. Bacwaninga ezokuxhumana ngezinga eliphezulu   babuye bacwaninge nangemigudu yokuxhumana, babheka ukusetshenziswa kwayo   kanye nendlela yokuphathwa kwayo ukuze babone futhi balungise lezozidingo   zokuxhumana esezimoshekile. Ukubhekela izicelo ngezikhungo okuthenjelwe kuzo   kanye nokubhekana nalezozimo ezingadingeka kanye nokubhekela ukuthi kube nezidingo   zokuxhumana ezisebenzayo.
technical   information: Information or data that relates to   research, development, engineering, testing, evaluation, production,   operation, or use of scientific of military activities.  technical information:   Lokhu kuchaza ulwazi olunzulu lobuchwepheshe. Ulwazi oluphathelene nocwaningo   ngaphambi kokukhiqiza. Into nento ekhiqizwayo iyabuyekezwa izikhathi   eziningana ize ilungele ukusetshenziswa.
telebanking:   A service which allows clients to carry out banking transactions from their   home or business over communication network, such as videotex.  telebanking:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwase mabhange lwesimanje lokufaka noma ukukhipha imali   olwenziwa ngohlelo lwezokuxhumana ngezingcingo. Uhlelo lwamabhange olwenzelwe   abantu abalondoloza imali kulelo bhange ukuthi bakwazi ukukhipha noma ukufaka   imali ngisho bengekho egatsheni lebhange labo. Lokhu bangakwenza ngisho   besekhaya noma besemsebenzini ngokusebenzisa ucingo kanye nezinye izindlela   zokuxhumana.
Telecom   Australia: Australia’s government-owned   domestic terrestrial telecommunications carrier.  Telecom Australia:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwezokuxhumana ngothelefoni lwemboni yaphesheya   kwezilwandle ezweni lase Australia. Umnyango wezokuxhumana kaHulumeni   waseAustralia.
telecommunication:   Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writing,   images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or   other electromagnetic systems.  telecommunication:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Kungasho noma yiluphi uhlelo   lwezokuxhumana ngezincingo ukuhambisa nokwamukela okubhaliwe noma imisindo   yokuxhumana kusetshenziswa izintambo, ezomoya njengemisakazo, ezomabonakude   nangendlela kamazibuthe.
Telecommunications   Development Bureau (BDT): A permanent organ   of the International Telecommunication Union formed in 1989 to promote   telecommunication development, including technical and managerial   training.  Telecommunications Development Bureau (BDT):   Lokhu kuchaza inhlangano, ihovisi, noma uphiko lwenhlangano kaHulumeni   oluphethe ezokuthuthukiswa kwezihlelo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni. Uphiko   lwenhlangano yamazwe omhlaba kwezokuxhumana. Yasungulwa ngo 1989 ukuze   ikhuthaze ukuthuthukiswa kwezokuxhumana, izindlela ezisimeme zokuxhumana,   nokuqeqesha abantu ukuze bakwazi ukuthuthukisa bangamele ezokuxhumana.
telecommunications facilities:   The aggregate of equipment, such as radios, telephones, teletypewriters,   facsimile equipment, data equipment, cables, and switches, used for providing   telecommunications services.  telecommunications facilities:   Lokhu kuchaza isibalo esihlanganisa zonke izinto zokuxhumana. Kungasho   imisakazo noma ukuxhumana ngezomoya. Kusho amathelefoni noma izingcingo,   imishini yokubhala, imishini yokuthumela imibiko, noma udaba ngephepha   usebenzisa izintambo zocingo. Kusho nezintambo ezihambisa imiyalezo nalokho   okwenza umsebenzi wokushintsha kwezokuxhumana.
teledensity:   The penetration of telecommunication access lines typically measured per 100   inhabitants.  teledensity:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuminyana kwezinhlelo zokuxhumana ezisebenzisa othelefoni.   Ukunwetshwa kwezinto zokuxhumana okungasho ukufakwa kukathelefoni lapho kade   ungekho khona. Izinga lokuthuthuka kulowo msebenzi likalwa ngokufinyelela   kwezinga okunwetshwa ngalo izinto zokuxhumana ekhulwini labantu.
telefax   (fax): Facsimile service between   subscribers’ stations via the public switched telephone network of the   international Datel network.  Telefax (fax):   Lokhu kuchaza ukuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo ebhaliwe esheshayo ngohlelo lokusebenzisa   umshini wokuxhumana obizwa nge modem oxhunywa kuthelefoni nakwi khompuyutha.   Ukusebenzisa ucingo lukathelefoni lapho kuthunyelwa imibiko noma imiyalezo   kubalingani ngohlobo lokuxhumana olubizwa ngenhlangano yezizwe ye Datel.
tele-medicine:   A medical care practice that uses interactive audio, visual, and data   communications to support diagnosis, transfer of medicine, data,   consultations and treatments. It also plays a role in providing education to   both patient and medical staff.  tele-medicine:   Uhlelo lwezokwelapha olusebenzisa ezokuxhumana ezokuzwa ngendlebe kanye   nokubona ngamehlo. Lokhu kwenzelwa ukuthi kulekelelwe umsebenzi wokuthola   ukuthi isiguli siphethwe yini. Kungasho futhi ukuhambisa imithi, imiyalezo   ethile. Ukwelapha kubhekwe ukuthi umuntu uphethwe yini kanye nokunikeza   okokwelapha.  Isho futhi ukufundisa   isiguli nabezokunyanga.
telemetry:   The transmission of instrument readings or sensor data over a radio link,   wires, or any other medium to a distant station at which the information is   recorded or interpreted.  telemetry:   Ukuhambisa ngemishini, ukuxhunyaniswa ngezintambo, nengqikithi.   Kungasetshenziswa imisakazo noma ezomoya. Kungasetshenziswa izintambo   zokuxhumana lapho kuthunyelwa imiyalezo ezindaweni ezibuqama lapho imiyalezo   ifike ishicilelwe khona noma ihunyushwe khona.
telepaging:   Sometimes used as a synonym of radio paging. Telepaging is not a common   term.  telepaging:   Kusho ukuxhumana ngezomoya noma ngemisindo yezomoya. Ngesinye isikhathi   leligama lisetshenziswa njenge gama elisho into efanayo nohlelo lokubiza   umuntu noma ukudinga usizo oluthile ngomsakazo. Ukudinga usizo okungaba   olwanoma iyiphi inhlobo ngohlelo lothelefoni abasebenzelana nokuxhumana   kwemisakazo kwaziwa njenge gama elingajwayelekile.
telepoint:   A new generation of pay telephones and one-way wireless communications based   on micro-cellular radio technology.  telepoint:   Uhlobo olusha lwamathelefoni asebenzisa izinhlamvu zemali. Kwesinye isikhathi   izintambo zokuxhumana ezisetshenziswa kuloluhlobo lukathelefoni. Isebenza   njengamathelefoni e-“cellular”.
teleport:   A satellite Earth station with extensive access to terrestrial facilities and   a broad base of users situated on real estate developments adjacent to the   Earth stations or at other locations. The word is often used to describe a   facility giving access to a satellite network or other long-haul   telecommunications network. Though usually connected to a building complex   offering shared tenant services (such as a free enterprise zone or industrial   park), a teleport sometimes also services the greater regional community   beyond the tenants of the individual development.  teleport:   Yisiteshi se satellite esisemhlabeni kodwa esinezinxakanxaka zezintambo   ezenza abantu abaningi bakwazi ukuxhumana. Igama livamise ukusetshenziselwa   umshinyana onikezela amandla okuxhumana ngokwe satellite noma ukuxhumana   ngaphezu kwamabanga aqhelelene. Ivamise ukumiswa ebhilidini elithile   njengendawo yamafemu.    I”teleport”, ivamisile futhi ukuxhunywa ukuze isize   imiphakathi emikhulu.
teleprinter:   An asynchronous terminal containing a keyboard and a printing mechanism for   sending and receiving alphanumeric information over a communications   channel.  teleprinter:   Umshini oba nendawo yokubhala, usetshenziselwa ukuthumela kanye nokwamukela   imiyalezo nolwazi emgudwini wezokuxhumana.
teleservice:   A type of telecommunications service that provides the complete capability,   including terminal equipment functions, for communication between users   according to protocols established by agreement between administrations of   RPOAs (Recognised Private Operating Agency).  teleservice:   Lokhu kuchaza imisebenzi noma usizo lothelefoni. Uhlobo lwezokuxhumana   oluphelele olusiza amaqembu athize ukuthi akwazi ukuthintana kuye ngemigomo   nemibandela yezivumelwano zawo azimisile.
tele-software:   A system for storing programmes on page in a teletext database so they can be   captured by any user with the right equipment and fed (downloaded) into a   microcomputer storage via a communications channel for execution.  tele-software:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokugcina imiyalezo esichaziwe yokusebenza   kwekhompuyutha kanye nothelefoni. Uhlelo lokugcina imiyalezo emshinini   we-khompuyutha bese kuthi umsebenzi onezimfanelo ezimiselwe ukuthi zikwazi   ukuthola lemiyalezo noma imibandela esebenzisa ezokuxhumana.
teletext:   Slow-speed transmission of textual information over the vertical blanking   intervals of broadcast television signals.  teletext:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo lwesimanje olusheshayo.   Ukuthunyelwa kolwazi olubhaliwe oluhamba ngesivinini esincane ngokuba khona   kwezikhawu lapho kusakazwa ngezinkomba zemifanekiso.
television (TV):   A form of telecommunication for the transmission of transient images of fixed   or moving objects. The picture signal is usually accompanied by the sound   signal. TV signals are generated, transmitted, received, and displayed in   accordance with the specific national and system standards.  television (TV):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo noma ngabe iluphi lukamabona kude. Lena indlela   yokuxhumana esebenzisa imifanekiso noma izithombe ezinyakazayo noma   ezimisiwe. Izithombe zivamise ukuphelekezelwa imisindo. UHulumeni umisa   imithetho yokusebenza kwaloluhlelo.
Television   Receive-Only (TVRO): Satellite dishes   equipped for one-way reception of television signals.  Television Receive-Only (TVRO):   Yilokho okumise okwendishi okuwumshini wesatellite okuhambisa ngendlela   eyodwa yokwamukela izimpawu zikamabonakude.
terminal equipment: Communications   equipment at either end of a communications link, used to permit the   stations involved to accomplish the mission for which the link was   established. In radio-relay systems, it is the equipment used at points where   data is inserted or derived, as distinct from equipment used only to relay a   reconstituted signal. Also used to denote telephone and telegraph   switchboards and other centrally located equipment at which communications   circuits are terminated.  terminal equipment:   Imishini yezokuxhumana exhumanisa izindawo   noma amathuluzi ezindawo zokuxhumana. Izinhlangothi zonke kuye nokuthi   iluhlobo luni. Kungaba ezomoya ukusakaza ngendlela ekhombisa izindawo lapho   imiyalezo ifakwa noma ikhishwa khona kwezokuxhumana ngocingo. Isebenza   ngendlela yokuxhunyaniswa ngu “switchboard” nama “telegraph”.
terminal:   A keyboard device loaded at the end of a data link to a computer that is used   for input-output purposes.  terminal:   Lokhu kuchaza lokho okuthwala amandla kagesi noma okuxhumanisayo lapho   kungena noma kuphuma khona amandla okungaba awokuxhumana noma kagesi. Umshini   osetshenziselwa ukufaka noma ukukhipha imiyalezo nolwazi kwikhompuyutha.
terms   of trade: The ratio of the index of export   prices to the index of import prices. When export prices rise faster than   import prices, a country experiences an improvement in its terms of   trade.  terms of trade:   Lokhu kuchaza izivumelwano noma imigomo ethile yokudayisa. Umehluko phakathi   kwenani lemikhiqizo ethunyelwa emazweni angaphandle, nenani lemikhiqizo   ethengwa emazweni angaphandle. Uma kukhula intengo yezinto ezithengwa amazwe   angaphandle kusho ukuthi izwe liyadlondlobala kwezokuhwebelana.
terrestrial radio-communication:   Any radio-communication other than space radio communication or radio   astronomy.  terrestrial radio-communication:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngemisakazo oluhamba emkhathini. Kungaba   yinoma yiluphi uhlelo lwezokuxhumana ngaphandle komsakazo noma   ngokwezinkanyezi.
terrestrial station:   A station carrying out aspects of terrestrial radio-communication. Any   station which is not satellite-based is a terrestrial station.  terrestrial station:   Isiteshi noma isikhungo esihambisa imininingwane yohlobo lwezintambo   zokuxhumana zomsakazo ezisebenzisa i-satellite lapho kuxhunyanwa.
throughput:   The amount of data carried over a particular amount of capacity in a   specified time span (see also bit rate).  throughput:   Ubuningi bolwazi noma imiyalezo ethunyelwa ngobungako bemigudu yezokuxhumana   esikhathini esikaliwe.
Time-Division   Multiple Access (TDMA): A technique for   deriving more throughput and accommodating increased demand by assigning   channels to users in discrete blocks of time.  Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA):   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlukaniswa kwesikhathi ekuphumeleleni ukusebenzisa into   ethile okuphindaphindiwe. Indlela eyenza ukuthi kuthunyelwe imininingwane   eminingana ngomgudu ongemngakanani nasesikhathini esingesingakanani   ngokuphakela izintambo ezinye kubasebenzisi bekhompuyutha ukuze ube mningi   umsebenzi owenziwayo.
time-sharing:   A computing technique in which numerous terminal devices can utilise a   central computer concurrently for input, processing, and output   functions.  time-sharing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlephulelana ngesikhathi. Indlela ethize yokusebenzisa   ikhompuyutha lapho imizila eminingi isebenzisa ikhompuyutha eyodwa   ngesikhathi esisodwa, ukufakela, ukuqhutshwa komsebenzi kanye nokukhipha   imiyalezo ethile kwikhompuyutha.
toll   service: See Long-distance.  toll-service:   Bheka i Long-distance.
traffic:   Messages, programming, files and other intelligence requiring transport from   one location to another.    traffic:   Lokhu kuchaza noma yini ethunyelwayo eminyeneyo. Imiyalezo, amafayela afuna   ukususwa endaweni ethize athunyelwe kwenye. Ukukalwa kwemiyalezo yonke nobude   bayo lapho ithunyelwa ngomgudu noma ngomzila wokuxhumana esikhathini   esithize.
traffic:   A quantitative information measurement of the total messages and their length   moved over a communication channel during a specified period of time.  traffic:   Lokhu kuchaza noma yini ehambayo eningi kakhulu noma eminyeneyo. Ulwazi   ongalubala ngokuthi ulukale lwesamba semiyalezo kanye nobude bayo emzileni   wokuxhumana ngesikhathi esithile noma ngesikhathi esikhethiwe.
traffic-sensitive   costs: Investment and operating costs   (including depreciation and return on investment) associated with telephone   company facilities, which vary in aggregate quantity with the volume of calls   (and other measures of traffic) handled by the telephone system. Included are   the costs associated with common switching facilities in the local central   office (“end office”), interoffice trunks that connect several end offices   either directly or via an intermediate switching point, and intermediate or   tandem switching systems used to route calls.  traffic-sensitive costs:   Izindleko eziqondene nokuthenga imishini kanye nokusebenzisa imishini   kathelefoni. Lezi zindleko ziyashiyana nezindleko zentengo yokusebenzisa   ucingo lukathelefoni kuye ngobuningi besikhathi ucingo lukathelefoni   olusetshenziswa ngaso kanye nobuningi bezikhathi zokushaya ucingo. Ihlanganisa   izindleko eziqondene nokuthumela izingcingo ehovisi eliseduzane kanye   nezingcingo ezihlanganisa amahovisi nezintambo ezenza ukuthi kuxhumane   amahovisi ngezincingo.
trans-border   data flow: The transmission of data across   national borders, alternatively viewed as a vehicle to share the wealth of   information or a source for cultural imperialism.  trans-border data flow:   Ukuthunyelwa kwemiyalezo noma ulwazi ngaphandle kwemingcele yezwe. Indlela   eyenza kubelula ukuphakelana ulwazi, eyenza izwi elithumela ulwazi,   abafundayo bazi kabanzi ngalelozwe.
transceiver:   A device that contains components that transmit and receive radio   signals.  transceiver:   Umshini oqukethe izinto zokuthumela noma ukwamukela izimpawu zokuxhumana   ngendlela yokusakaza noma yezomoya.
Transceiver (2):   A device that performs both transmitting and receiving functions within   one chassis..  Transceiver (2):   Umshini osebenza ukuthumela noma ukwamukela izimpawu zokuxhumana.
transducer:   A device for converting energy from one form to another for the purpose of   measurement of a physical quantity or for information transfer.  transducer:   Umshini oguqula amandla kusukela esimweni esisodwa kuya kwesinye ngenjongo   yokukala ubungako noma ukuthunyelwa komyalezo noma ulwazi.
transiting:   The carriage of international traffic via the facilities of an intermediary   third country between the sender and recipient.  transiting:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo oluthile lokuthwala noma lokuthutha, njenge zithuthi   noma lokho okuthwala amandla kagesi ohlelweni oluthile lokuxhumana.   Ukuthunyelwa kwemibiko okwenzeka phakathi kwamazwe omhlaba, kusetshenziswa   izwe elithile ukuvumela ukuthintana noma ukuxhumana phakathi kothumela   nowamukela umbiko noma ulwazi.
translator:   A device that converts information from one system of representation into   equivalent information in another system of representation. In FM and TV   broadcasting, a repeater station that receives a primary station’s signal,   amplifies it, shifts it in frequency, and rebroadcasts it.  translator:   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele umtoliki noma ukushintsha inkulumo uyisusa olimini   oluthile uyishintshela kolunye ulimi. Umshini oguqula umyalezo uwususa   emgudwini owodwa omele idlanzana labantu abathize uphinde uwuyise kwelinye   idlanzana lapho kusakazwa ngokomsakazo nangomabonakude kusetshenziswa   isiteshi esamukela izimpawu zokuxhumana bese sizishintsha noma siziguqule   zisakazwe ngomabonakude noma ngomsakazo.
transmission control protocol:   A network protocol that controls host-to-host transmissions over packet-switched   communication networks.  transmission control protocol:   Lokhu kuchaza noma kumele ikhomishani noma isigungu esikhethwe ngokomthetho   ukuze silawule izinhlelo zokuxhumana. Izintambo zokuxhumana eziphethe   ukuxhumana kwendawo nendawo, kusetshenziswa imishinyana yezokuxhumana.
transmission:   The dispatching of a signal, message, or other form of information, for   reception elsewhere. Also refers to the propagation of a signal, message, or   other form of information by any means, such as by telegraph, telephone,   radio, television or facsimile via any medium, such as wire, coaxial cable,   microwave, optical fibre or radio frequency.  transmission:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuthumela ngokuxhumana. Ukuhambisa imiyalezo ethize   ukuze yamukelwe kwenye indawo, isho futhi ukuthunyelwa kwezimpawu zemiyalezo   kusetshenziswa ithelefoni ithelegraf, umsakazo umabonakude umshini   wokuthumela imiyalezo noma ngenye indlela njengezintambo, kanye ne microwave.
transparency:   The property of a digital transmission channel, telecommunications circuit,   or connection that permits any digital signal to be conveyed without change   to the value or order of any signal elements.  transparency:   Lokhu kuchaza okungaba noma yini ebonakalayo, ecacile noma okungeyona   imfihlo. Kusho indlela yokusebenza yezokuxhumana evumela izimpawu zokuxhumana   zithunyelwe ngaphandle kokuziguqula noma ukuzishintsha.
transponder:   The components in a satellite able to transmit and receive traffic. Satellite   capacity is typically stated in the number of available 36-MHz equivalent   transponders.  transponder:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lomshini wokuxhumana. Umshini okwazi ukwamukela   nokuhambisa imiyalezo. Iyakwazi ukunikeza impendulo lapho uphenywa ngezinto   ezithile.
Transponder (2):   A transponder is a receiver-transmitter that will generate a reply signal   upon proper interrogation. Essentially, it is an automatic device that   receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency,   possibly even transmitting a pre-determined message in response to a predefined   received signal.  Transponder (2):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlobo lomshini wokuxhumana. Lomshini uyamukela, uguqule,   uhambise izimpawu ezithize ngokwamazinga ehlukene. Uyakwazi ukuthumela   umyalezo oyimpendulo yombuzo othile obuziwe.
Treaty   of Rome: Treaty enacted in 1957 that created   the European Community.  Treaty of Rome:   Lokhu kuchaza isivumelwano esithile esasayinwa izwe laphesheya kwezilwandle   elibizwa nge Rome. Isivumelwano soxolo esashicilelwa ngonyaka ka-1957.   Isivumelwano esiyisisekelo senhlangano yamazwe aseYurophu.
trunk:   The transmission circuit between two network nodes or switches.  trunk: Lokhu   kuchaza isithuthi noma lokho okuthwala umyalezo ngokohlelo lwebanga elide.   Umshini ohambisa imiyalezo ezindaweni ezimbili zokuxhumana.
trunking:   A computer-assisted process for queuing channel demands, thereby more   efficiently using spectrum and accommodating episodic demands for service.   For example, a trunked radio system will provide communication channels for   users on an as-demanded basis from the available inventory.  trunking:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwesithuthi noma isithwali ngokwebanga elide. Indlela   esebenza ngekhompuyutha, emisa imiyalezo ethunyelwayo ivumele ukuthi   izindlela zokuthumela zihambe kahle kuye ngobuningi bemiyalezo. Lapha kungaxhunyanwa   ngemisakazo ukuze inikezele izindlela zokuxhumana kubasebenzi kuye ngobuningi   bemiyalezo.
trunk-side   interconnection: The interconnection of facilities   and lines between carriers at a level higher up the hierarchy than typically   accorded end users.

trunk-side interconnection:   Lokhu kuchaza okuxhume pakathi nendawo kohlelo lwaseceleni lokushayela kude.   Ukuxhumana kwezintambo namahovisi phakathi kwezixhumanisi ezisezingeni elithe   ukuphakama kunalelo elibekelwa abasebenzisi baloluhlobo lokuxhumana.

 

U
 
UHF: Ultra high   frequency: the range of radio frequencies   extending from 300 to 3 000 megahertz (MHz), including television   channels 14 through 83.  UHF: Ultra high frequency: Lokhu kuchaza isikali sezinga lezokuxhumana.   Yizinga lezomoya lezokuxhumana, lwenabela endaweni ephakathi kuka 300 kuya   ku3000 MHz, kuhlangene nezinhlelo zemigudu kamabonakude engaphezu kuka 14   kuya ku 83.
unbundled   tariffs: Tariffs in which each component of a   communications service or product (often called a basic service element) is   priced separately, so that customers may select only those components needed   and be charged accordingly.  unbundled tariffs:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlukaniswa kwezindleko. Izindleko zezokuxhumana ezibalwa   ngokwehlukana. Abathengi bangazikhethela lezozinto kuphela abazidingayo ukuze   baxhumane nabanye abantu bese bekhokhela lezozindleko kuphela.
unbundled:   Separation of services and equipment into discrete elements available on an   individual, a la carte basis. Services, programmes, software and   training are sold separately from the hardware.  unbundled:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlukaniswa kwento ebiboshelwe ndawonye noma ukuqaqa izinto   ebezihlanganiswe ndawonye ngokuthi zivalelwe ephaketheni elithile.   Ukwehlukaniswa kwezidingo nemishini esetshenziswayo kwezokuxhumana.   Kuhlukaniswa izidingo, izinhlelo, izinto zokuxhumana nokuqeqeshwa, ukuze   kuthengwe ngokwehluka lapho kuthengwa ikhompuyutha.
universal   access: The ability to get on-line to a   network from anywhere or any place.  universal access:   Lokhu kuchaza ilungelo lokungena noma ukuphi. Kushiwo ukukwazi ukungena   emgudwini wezokuxhumana ngumuntu osebenzisa i-khompuyutha, angakwazi ukungena   noma ekuyiphi indawo noma kungasho nokungena nanganoma yisiphi isikhathi.
universal   service: The concept that every individual   within a country should have basic telephone service available at an   affordable price. The concept varies among countries.  universal service:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuba nelungelo lokuxhumana. Isisho esiqondiswe ekuthini wonke   umuntu ezweni akulo akwazi ukuba nendlela yokuxhumana ngocingo (thelefoni);   engathuthukile okutheni futhi engabizi imali etheni).  Inkolelo yokubaluleka kwalesisisho   iyashiyana kumazwe ngamazwe.
uplink (U/L):   The portion of a data transmission   communications link from a data station used for the transmission of signals   from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform.  An uplink is the converse of a downlink.  uplink (U/L):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana ngokubhekisa phezulu kwendlela yokuthunyelwa   kwemibiko. Ingxenye yezokuxhumana yokuhambisa imiyalezo eyimibhalo isuswa   esiteshini esigcina imiyalezo ihanjiswe endaweni esebenza ngohlelo   lokwamukela imiyalezo ngesathelaythi. Lendlela isebenzisa ezomoya   zasemhlabeni ukuthumela imiyalezo ngesathelaythi.
uplink:   The process of transmitting traffic from Earth to a satellite.  uplink:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuhlanganisa uhlelo   lokuxhumana ngokubhekisa phezulu kwendlela yokuthunyelwa kwemibiko. Indlela   noma uhlelo lokuthumela okuningi noma okuminyeneyo kususwa emhlabeni kuyiswa   ohlelweni oluthwebula ngemisebe ejikeleza emkhathini (satellite).
US   sprint: US interexchange carrier:  a major long-distance company that competes   against AT&T. Formed by the merger of GTE Sprint and US Telecom, US   Sprint is the third largest OCC in terms of market share after AT&T and   MCI.  It offers US-wide service.  US sprint:   Lokhu kuchaza inkampani ethwala imizila yezokuxhumana ezinze eMelika.   Lenkampani ithwala imiyalezo yokuxhumana phezu kwamabanga amade. Kulomsebenzi   wokuthwala ibangisana nenye inkampani okuthiwa yi-AT & T; nayo eyenza   lomsebenzi. Inkampani i-US SPRINT yasungulwa ukuze kuhlangane izinkampani   zokuthutha iGTE SPRINT ne-US TELECOM. Manje-ke i-US SPRINT iyinkampani   yesithathu kwezinkulu ezake zabakhona ezinkampanini zaloluhlobo lwezokuthwala   imiyalezo Inesabelo esikhulu ekwenzeni lomsebenzi; ilandela izinkampani i-AT   & T kanye ne-MCI.  I-US SPRINT   yenza umsebenzi wokuthwala imiyalezo eya kulolonke elase-Melika.
Usage-Sensitive   Pricing (tariffs): A rate or price   for telephone service based on the rate of utilisation other than a flat   (fixed) periodic fee; often used in respect to some local services and called   local measured service (LMS).

Usage–Sensitive Pricing (tariffs): Lokhu kuchaza intengo yokusetshenziswa kukathelefoni. Intengo yesidingo sika-thelefoni esuselwa ekutheni u-thelefoni usetshenziswa kangakanani uma kuqhathaniswa nokuthi kumiselwe intengo eyodwa eyaziwayo njengaleyo ephuma nyangazonke; okuyindlela engahambisani nezinga i-thelefoni esetshenziswa ngayo. Lendlela ivamise ukusetshenziswa kwi-zingcingo zendawo ezakhelene; ibizwa nge-Local Measured Service; okungukuthi isidingo esikalwayo sezindawo ezakhelene.

 

V
 
value-added   (enhanced) services: In general,   services that add value to a basic transmission service or modify   subscriber-supplied messages. There is, however, no simple definition of what   is value-added or an enhanced service. Often broadly seen as the offering of   computer processing applications (in conjunction with, or as an enhancement   to, information transmission capacity) which act on the format, content,   code, protocol, or similar aspects of the subscriber’s information, or which   permit storage and retrieval of information by subscribers.  value-added (enhanced) services:   Lokhu kuchaza ukwengezwa kwezidingo. Ngokujwayelekile; lesisidingo siletha   ukusizakala lapho abantu besebenzisa izinto zokuxhumana ngokuhambisa   nokwamukela imiyalezo. Ayikho kodwa indlela eqondile yokuchaza ukuthi   kungakanani okusuke kwengeziwe kulezozidingo. Isidingo esengeziwe siye   sibonakale lapho ikhompuyutha ifakwa izinto eziyivumelayo ukuthi ikwazi   ukwenza imisebenzi ngendlela egculisayo uma kuqhathaniswa ngisho noma   ibingawaphiwanga lawomandla. Indlela egculisayo yileyo i-khompuyutha esuke   isisebenza ngayo, ibonakala emandleni ayo okwenza umsebenzi kalula;   njengokubonakala kwesimo somsebenzi; indlela evumela lowo oyisebenzisayo   i-khompuyutha akwazi ukugcina umsebenzi azobuye awukhiphe kalula lapho   esefuna ukuqhubeka awusebenzise futhi.
value-added carrier:   A company that sells the services of a value-added network.  value-added carrier:   Lokhu kuchaza okwengeziwe kwezokuthwala. Inkampani noma imboni edayisa   isidingo esengeziwe kwezokuthwala imiyalezo ngemigudu noma imizila.
value-added network (VAN):   A network using the communication services of other commercial carriers,   using hardware and software that permits enhanced telecommunications services   to be offered.  value-added network (VAN):   Lokhu kuchaza ukwengezwa kwezidingo   zokuxhumana. Indlela yokuxhumana esebenzisa izidingo noma imisebenzi   yokuxhumana yezinye izithuthi noma izithwali eziphakela noma ezisetshenziswa   izimboni ezinkulu, zisebenzisa uhlelo olulondolozwe kokuqinile (hardware)   kanye nohlelo olulondolozwe kokuthambile (software) zombili lezizinhlelo   zisetshenziswa ekuqoqweni kolwazi nasekuxhumaneni ngamakhompuyutha nagezinye   izinhlelo zolwazi.  Lezinhlelo zivumela   ukuthi kubekhona ukutholakala kwemisebenzi, izidingo zokuxhumana ngothelefoni   eziphucuzekile.
VAN: Value-added   network: Refers to an enhanced-service   provider that typically leases transmission capacity and adds value by   performing customised services (e.g. credit card verification, electronic   funds transfer, etc.). Value added network(s) are often described as VAN(S) and are essentially communications   networks or systems which are enhanced or have value added through data   processing such as protocol and code conversion, storage, and   forwarding.  VAN: Value-added   network: Lokhu kuchaza ukwengezwa kwezidingo   zokuxhumana. Kushiwo isidingo esengeziwe kwezokuxhumana esiphakelwa   yinkampani yezokuthutha; ngendlela yokuqashisa umsebenzi wezokuthutha   kwezinye izinkampani.  Lendlela yenza   umsebenzi oncomekayo ngokuthi inkampani leyo okuqashiselwe kuyo umsebenzi   wokuthutha isebenzise izinto ezifana nama-khadi okukweleta (credit cards)   ukuqiniseka ukuthi imiyalezo ithunyelwa yamukelwe abantu abayibona noma   abanegunya lokusebenzisa imithetho yamakhadi okukweleta-(credit cards) Lokhu   kungambandakanya nomsebenzi wokuthumela imali ngemizila yokuxhumana   nge-khompuyutha, kusetshenziswa ubufakazi obanele bokuthi abantu labo   abathumelayo ikakhulu labo abamukela imali bayibo ngempela.
variable   costs: Costs that change directly with   changes in the level of activity or method of performing the activity. Includes   all costs associated with providing a service or producing a product.  variable costs:   Lokhu kuchaza izindleko ezishintshashintshayo. Izindleko   ezishintshashintshayo kuye ngokuthi kwenziwa umkhiqizo ongakanani; noma   indlela umkhiqizo owenziwa ngayo (kwenye inkathi indlela okukhiqizwa ngayo   iyabiza; uma kukhiqizwa izinto ezimbalwa; noma izindleko zibe phansi lapho   kukhiqizwa izinto eziningi). Kungashiwo futhi izindleko eziqondene nokunikeza   isidingo esithile; ukunikeza isidingo kuletha ezinye izindleko   okungezaloluhlobo.
VDT:  Video-dial-tone:   refers to the two-way or “switched” broadband carriage of information. VDT   technology will provide the platform for video-on-demand services. A switched   communications system is one that allows two-way, point-to-point exchange of   information.  VDT: Video-dial-tone:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuxhumana ngendlela yokusebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa   kumabonakude (video). Lokhu kumayelana noma kuqondiswe emgudwini   wezokuxhumana oyizindlela ezimbili. Loluhlobo lwezokuxhumana lunikezela   indlela yokusebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa kumabonakude (video) kuye   ngokwemfuneko yesimo sokuxhumana. Lendlela yokuxhumana ivumela umgudu   wokuxhumana ukuthi usetshenziswe ukuthumela nokwamukela imiyalezo kumbe   imibiko (information).
vertical   integration: The undertaking by a single firm of   successive stages in the process of production of a particular good.  vertical   integration: Lokhu kuchaza ukuzinqumela kwemboni. Ukuzinqumela kwemboni ukuthi   ithuthukise umsebenzi wokukhiqiza ngohlelo lokulandelanisa umkhiqizo   ngezigamu kancane kancane.
Very-Small-Aperture   Terminal (VSAT): Very small satellite Earth stations,   typically situated on user premises, which promote diversification in   services, easier access, and lower costs.  Very-Small-Aperture Terminal (VSAT):   Lokhu   kuchaza isathelaythi encane ebekwa eziteshini ezisemhlabeni. Isathelayithi   encane kakhulu ebekwa eziteshini ezisemhlabeni; ivamise ukubekwa emagcekeni   omuzi omuntu oyisebenzisayo, isiza ekudlondlobaliseni ukusebenza kwemisebenzi   ehlukene, yenze ukungena kwi-khompuyutha kube lula futhi kungabizi kakhulu   ukusebenzisa i-khompuyutha.
VHF:   Very high frequency: the range of radio frequencies extending from 30 to 300   megahertz (MHz), including television channels 2 through 13.  VHF: Lokhu   kuchaza izinga lokugijima kakhulu lapho kuhanjiswa imiyalezo. Kushiwo izinga   elikhulu eligijima kakhulu lokuhambisa imiyalezo ngezomoya kumbe ngomkhathi;   izinga lejubane lemigudu yezomoya engaba cishe ngango 30 kuya ku 300   megahertz; eziteshini zikamabonakude kusukela kwe-zimbili (2) kuya kwezi   yishumi nantathu (13). Imegahertz yisikali sejubane lemigudu yezomoya).
video   compression: The process of compacting data, so   that more can be stored and transmitted.  video   compression: Lokhu kuchaza indlela okudidiyelwa   ngayo imiyalezo. Indlela okudidiyelwa ngayo imiyalezo noma izinto ezigcinwe   kwi-khompuyutha ukuze ubuningi bazo bufinyezwe ukuze kuvuleke indawo   kwi-khompuyutha. Lokho kungandisa indawo yokufaka eminye imiyalezo   kwi-khompuyutha ukuze kuthi lowo osebenzisa i-khompuyutha akwazi ukuthumela   leyomilayezo kwezinye izindawo nakwabanye abantu.
video dial tone:   The provision of transparent common carrier transmission capacity for   delivery of video programming.  video dial tone:   Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokusebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa kumabonakude lapho   kuthunyelwa imiyalezo. Ukunikezela indlela ewumgudu ovulekile wokuthumela   imiyalezo ngendlela esebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa kumabonakude.
video teleconference:   A type of teleconference that includes video communications; essentially   a two-way electronic communications system that permits two or more persons   in different locations to engage in the equivalent of face-to-face audio and   video communications as if all the participants were together in the same   room.  video teleconference: Lokhu kuchaza umgudu   ombaxambili wokuhambisa imiyalezo ohlanganisa indlela yokuxhumana ngesithombe   esixhunywe kumabonakude. Lendlela embaxambili esebenza ngogesi   kwezokuxhumana, ikwazi ukuvumela labo abasebenzisa ikhompuyutha ababili noma   ngaphezulu bakwazi ukuxhumana besezindaweni ezehlukene, bakhulume bebonana   ubuso nobuso ngokusebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa kumabonakude (video) bebe   futhi bezwa inkulumo omunye ayisho komunye.    Lokhu kwenza sengathi labo abasebenzisa ikhompuyutha bakhuluma   besendaweni eyodwa futhi umlomo nomlomo.
video-conferencing:   A two-way telecommunications service that allows “live” moving video images   and speech of participants in a conference to be transmitted between two or   more locations. Video conferencing services generally require the digital   transmission rate of T-1 (1.544 Mbps) or higher. 

video-conferencing:
Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokuxhumana ngokusebenzisa isithombe esixhunywa
kumabonakude. Uhlobo lwezokuxhumana lapho kusetshenziswa khona umgudu
ombaxambili wokuhambisa imiyalezo, ohlanganisa indlela yokuxhumana ngesithombe
esixhunywa kumabonakude. Lapha imifanekiso nenkulumo yabantu abazama ukuxhumana
ngokuxoxisana, yenza ukuthi bakwazi ukuthumela inkulumo yabo ezindaweni
ezimbili noma ngaphezulu kwezimbili. Lomgudu wezokuxhumana wenza abantu
abasezindaweni ezehlukene bakwazi ukuxoxisana sengathi babukana ubuso nobuso
noma bakhuluma umlomo nomlomo. Lendlela yokuxhumana idinga amandla okuxhumana
ezinto ezihamba ngogesi nezomoya kwezinga elingu T-1; okungukuthi 1.544 Mbps
noma ngaphezulu

video-on-demand:   A service that allows the user to dial a video-dial-tone system, choose a   video and play it.  video-on-demand:   Lokhu kuchaza ukudingeka kwesithombe esixhunywa kumabonakude. Isidingo   esivumela lowo osebenzisa ikhompuyutha ukuze akwazi ukusebenzisa isithombe   esixhunywa kumabonakude (video) asidlale asixhume khona kwi-khompuyutha.
Videotex:   A generic term for a two-way interactive service that provides data storage,   retrieval, and processing. It combines a customer premises query device such   as typewriter keyboard or touch-tone pad, and a video display, such as a home   TV set, that are linked by the public telephone network to a computerised   data bank or other information source. Slow-speed transmission of textual   information over closed circuits.  Videotex:   Lokhu kuchaza imibhalo egcinwayo ngendlela yokusebenzisa umshini oxhunywa   kumabonakude ukuze ubonise imifanekiso. Itemu leli elisetshenziselwa indlela   yokuxhumana engumbaxambili esiza ukugcina imiyalezo kwi-khompuyutha   nokuyikhipha lapho izosetshenziswa. Lendlela yokuxhumana ihlanganisa indlela   umuntu osebenzisa i-khompuyutha athululula ngayo imininingwane   esebenzisa-i-keyboard nokuthi akufane nesithombe esixhunywe kumabonakude. Konke   lokhu kuxhunywa ngezintambo zikathelefoni kwi-khompuyutha equkethe   imininingwane, imiyalezo noma ulwazi. Kushiwo futhi ukuhanjiswa kwemiyalezo   ebhaliwe ngejubane elifushane kusetshenziswa izithwalimandla zikagesi   ezivalekile.
virtual network:   A network that provides virtual circuits. A virtual network is established by   using the facilities of a real network.  virtual network:   Lokhu kuchaza imigudu yokuxhumana. Umgudu wokuxhumana onikezela   ngezithwalimandla zikagesi ezingabonakali ngamehlo enyama; lomgudu wenzeka   lapho kusetshenziswa ukuxhumana ngama-khompuyutha lapho kuthunyelwa futhi   kwamukelwa imiyalezo.
virtual networks:   Software-derived networks typically involving lines partitioned from public   switched facilities.  virtual networks:   Lokhu kuchaza izindlela ezisebenzayo zokuxhumana. Lena ingxenye yohlelo   eyakhiwe ngokuthambile (software) ethwala ulwazi loku sebenzisa   amakhompuyutha nokuxhumana futhi esebenza ngawo okususelwa kuyo izindlela   zokuxhumana ngokusemqoka okuhlanganisa olayini noma imigudu ehlukaniswe   ekuphambanisweni kwezinto, izimpahla zomphakathi.
virtual private   line: Using software to partition capacity   from switched public facilities to make it function the same as capacity   dedicated to a single user.  virtual private line:   Lokhu kuchaza izindlela ezisebenzayo zomgudu wangasese. Ukusebenzisa   loluhlelo olwakhiwe ngokuthambile (software) oluthwala ulwazi ngokusebenza   kwa makhompuyutha noma ulwazi lokuxhumana ekuvimbeni amandla noma isisindo   ezimpahleni, ezintweni zomphakathi ezishintshanisiwe ukuze isebenze ngokufana   njengesisindo esibekelwe umsebenzisi oyedwa.
virtual reality:   An interactive, simultaneous electronic representation of a real or imaginary   world where, through sight, sound and even touch, the user is given the impression   of becoming part of what is represented.  virtual reality:   Lokhu kuchaza izindlela ezisebenza ngempela. Ekusebenzisaneni kanyekanye   kokumele okuhamba ngogesi noma ngohlobo oluthize lomlilo ukuze kusebenze,   okwangempela noma okuyiphupho, umcabango emhlabeni lapho, ngokokubuka,   umsindo, ngisho nokuthinta, umsebenzisi unikwa ithemba lokuba ingxenye   yokumelwe noma okufanisiwe.
voice service:   A two-way service involving direct voice communication between two or more   persons, but does not include a service in which the voice aspect is limited   to the co-ordination or setting-up of a data service.  voice service:   Lokhu kuchaza izixhumanisi ezisebenzisa izwi njenge misakazo kanye nokunye.   Ukusebenza ngezindlela ezimbili ezifaka ukuxhumana okuqondile ngezwi phakathi   kwabantu ababili noma abangaphezulu, kodwa engafaki umsebenzi lapho ingxenye   yezwi incishisiwe ekuhlanganiseni noma ekumisweni komsebenzi wohlelo   lwekhompuyutha lokuqoqa izinhlelo, noma imininingwane ebalulekile (data).
voicemail:   Message and storage service: the telephone equivalent of electronic   mail.

voicemail: Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokugcinwa komyalezo   ngezwi. Umsebenzi wokugcina izwi kanye nomyalezo-ukulingana kukathelefoni   nomyalezo othunyelwe ngohlelo locingo oluxhunywa kwikhompuyutha ophuma   usuwumbhalo

 

W
 
WAN: Wide Area   Network: a communications network made up of   a number of Local Area Networks (LANs) and/or Metropolitan Area Networks   (MANs), allowing access to data physically located at widely disparate   distances. A WAN is therefore an interconnected network of personal computers   and work stations situated indifferent locations.  WAN: Wide Area Network:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuxhumana okwenzeka endaweni ebanzi. Izindlela   zokuxhumana ezenziwe isibalo noma inani lendawo yasekhaya yezindlela   zokuxhumana (LANs) kanye/noma izindlela zokuxhumana ezisemadolobheni (MANs),   okuvumela ukuthi sibe nethuba lokufinyelela mathupha ngokuzibambela ngezandla   ohlelweni oluqukethe izinhlelo kanye neminye imininingwane (data) oluhleli   ebangeni elidingeka kabanzi. I WAN ngakhoke iyindlela exhumene phakathi   yokuxhumana kwamakhompuyutha angasese abanini bawo kanye nezikhumulo,   izikhungo noma iziteshi zokusebenzela ezisezindaweni ezihlukene
WATS: Wide Area   Telephone Service: a nation-wide   long-distance telephone service in which users contract for high-volume   circuit usage rather than paying for each call individually. They can then   provide toll-free calling for the call originator provided by many retailing   and service organisations (e.g. 086 numbers in South Africa).  WATS: Wide Area Telephone Service:   Lokhu kuchaza umsebenzi wokuxhumana ngothelefoni endaweni ebanzi. Umsebenzi   kazwelonke wokuxhumana ngothelefoni ibanga elide lapho abasebenzisi   bevumelana ngokusebenzisa isithwali noma lokho okuphakamisa izwi eliphezulu   kunokuthi bakhokhele uthelefoni osetshenzisiwe ngamunye. Bangakwazi ke   ukuletha uhlelo olungakhokhelwa (toll free calling) lapho kuvela khona   uthelefoni olethwa abaningi abadayisayo kanye namaqembu enza imisebenzi noma   esebenzayo (isibonelo) izinombolo eziqala ngo 086 la e South Africa).
whipsawing:   The practice of a monopoly carrier to extract concessions from foreign   correspondent carriers operating in a competitive market who must vie for   return, inbound traffic from the monopoly carrier.  whipsawing:   Lokhu kuchaza ukuzanywa kokulawula konke ngesithuthi noma izithwali ukuze   kukhishwe amalungelo ezithuthini noma ezithwalini zezindaba zamanye amazwe   eziqhuba umsebenzi wazo ezimakethe ezincintisanayo futhi ezinamathuba   amaningi futhi ezizama kanzima ngokubuyiswayo, ukuminyana okungenayo okuphuma   kokulawulwe konke ngezithuthu noma ekulawuleni konke ngezithwali noma   izithuthi.
windowing:   Segmenting the distribution of a product such as a movie into sequences based   on consumer demand elasticities and time from initial availability. Movie   producers attempt to extract the greatest amount of rent by calibrating   availability and charges (e.g. R30-R40 at a theatre, R15-R20 on rented video   tape, and no charge to viewers on broadcast television).  windowing:   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lokuhlukanisa ngendlela into ethile edingeka ngayo.   Ukuhlukanisa ukwabiwa kwempahla njenge sithombe sebhayisikobho ukuze konke   okwenzeka kuso kulandelane ngendlela efunwa ngokungafani noma ngokungalingani   ethandwa abasebenzisi kanye nesikhathi ebesikhona kusukela ekuqaleni.   Abakhiqizi bezithombe zebhayisikobho bazama ukukhipha isamba esikhulu sentela   ekukalweni kokukhona kanye nezindleko (isibonelo amadola ayisithupha kuya   kwayisishagalombili R30-R40 ebhayisikobho, amadola amabili kuya kwamathathu   R15-R20 ohlelweni olubolekiwe lwebhande lokugcina umbukiso webhayisikobho   olubukiswa ngomshini oxhunywa kuthelevishini, kanti kubabukeli bokusakazwa   kumabonakude ababizwa zindleko).
Wireless Local   Loop (WLL): The use of unwired transmission   facilities to provide connections to the wireline public switched   telecommunications network. Many of these technologies also provide mobile   services.  Wireless Local Loop (WLL):   Lokhu kuchaza uhlelo lwasekhaya noma endaweni yakithi lokuxhumana   olungaxhunywe ndawo. Ukusetshenziswa kwezinto zendlela yokuthumela   engaxhunywe ndawo ekusizeni noma ekuletheni ukuxhumana emigudwini ehamba   ngezintambo okuvulelwe indlela yokuxhumana ngohlobo lukuxhumana ngokocingo.   Lobu hlakani noma ubungcweti obuningi buletha imisebenzi ngohlelo lomahamba   nendlwana.
wireless   networks: The use of radio technology to serve   increasingly diverse applications, including mobile services and some   applications heretofore provided via wireline facilities.  wireless networks:   Lokhu kuchaza izindlela zokuxhumana ezingena zintambo noma ezingaxhunywe   ndawo. Ukusetshenziswa kobuhlakani bomsakazo ekuphakeleni ngokwandile   ezicelweni ezingafani, lokhu kuhlanganisa uhlelo lwemisebenzi yomahamba   nendlwana kanye nezinye izicelo ngaphambi kwesikhathi esibekiwe ekudluleni   ezintweni zemigudu yezintambo.
wireline:   The conventional wire-based telecommunications infrastructure installed and   managed by incumbent carriers.  wireline:   Lokhu kuchaza indlela yezokuxhumana esebenzisa izingcingo. Indlela   yezokuxhumana esebenzisa izingcingo (wires); nokusebenza kwayo okuphethwe   abanikazi bezinto zokuxhumana.
worst hour of the year:   That hour of the year during which the median noise over any radio path is at   a maximum, therefore this hour is considered to coincide with the hour during   which the greatest transmission loss occurs. 

worst hour of the year:   Lokhu kuchaza isikhathi esibi noma esingesihle enyakeni. Yilelo hora onyakeni   lapho umsindo ovela ezintweni zokuxhumana ngomoya usuke uphezulu kakhulu;   lesisikhathi sithathwa njengehora eliqondana nehora lapho ukulahleka   kokuthumela noma ukwamukela imiyalezo kwenzeka khona kakhulu.
X
 
X.25:   An ITU-recognised protocol for user access to data networks.  X.25: Lokhu   kuchaza ingxenye emshinini we-khompuyutha eyenza noma evumela umuntu   osebenzisa i-khompuyutha ukuthi akwazi ukungena emagumbini anemigudu eminingi   yokuxhumana.
X.400/X.500:   A series of protocols governing electronic mail and directory functions.  X.400/X.500:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye emshinini wekhompuyutha ophethe ukusebenza kwe-posi   elihamba ngekhompuyutha, kanye nokusebenza kwezinto ezithile zekhompuyutha.
X.75:   An ITU-recognised protocol for interconnecting data networks.  X.75: Lokhu   kuchaza ingxenye emshinini wekhompuyutha exhumanisa imigudu eminingi   yezintambo zokuxhumana.
X-band:   A portion of the frequency spectrum in the 7- to 8-GHz range used primarily   for satellites with defence and intelligence gathering applications.  X.band:   Lokhu kuchaza ingxenye yomshini osebenzisa ezomkhathi ukuthumela imiyalezo   noma imibiko kumbe imibandela esetshenziswa kakhulu kuma-sathelaythi   kwezombutho wezokuvikela nasezintweni ezethamela ezosomaqhinga kwezokuvikela   izwe.
X-bar exchange:   See Cross-bar exchange.

X-bar exchange:   Bheka i-cross bar exchange.
Z
 
Zero + Dialling:   A calling arrangement involving verification of credit or payment through   intervention by an operator or computer.  Zero + Dialling: Lokhu kuchaza indlela yokukhokha ngekhadi   lokukweleta (credit card) esebenzisa ikhompuyutha ukuthola isiqiniseko   sokuthi umuntu osebenzisa lelokhadi lokukweleta (credit card) ngeyakhe   ngempela noma unayo yini imvume yokuyisebenzisa. Kuyaye kushaywe ucingo noma   uthelefoni ukuthola lesosiqiniseko noma kusetshenziswe ikhompuyutha.

 

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